**Math Topics**- Common Core
- Initiatives
- Methodology
- Resources
- Projects
- Manipulatives
- Software

**Learning Support**- Standardized Test Prep
- Technology Integration
- Assisting Readers

Tips for Success

(Page 1 of 2)

Standardized Test Preparation and Tips for Success includes two pages of resources:

**Test
Prep Resources (Page 1 )**:

Standardized testing in your state released test items and practice tests

Test Prep Resources (Page 2) address the following:

Test Preparation Advice

Math Anxiety and How to Minimize It

Tutoring guidelines

See CT4ME's Common Core Resources for high school learners. Use these all year long to address each of the domains within the Common Core math standards.

From basic skills to specific subjects, our extensive collection of math resources for elementary, middle, and high school are also beneficial to help learners master concepts within state standards.

CT4ME developed a free Test-Prep KWL Chart for students to use to help them monitor their test preparation progress.

Become a Smart Learner--Raise your Skills! Many states provide educators with benchmark assessments or item banks linked to their state standards. Learn more about standardized tests in your state, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) using resources in this section.

**Are
your students ready for the Common Core math exams?**

You can find out by using Benchmark Now! from Naiku for Grades 2-High School. It "combines the assessment delivery, auto-scoring, and intuitive standards-based reporting features of Naiku with professionally developed end-of-year summative assessments that include a variety of question item types – including technology enhanced – tied to the Common Core State Standards in ELA and Math."

Learn more about the Common Core Standards and Standards in Your State, as provided by the Common Core State Standards Initiative.

**Do benchmark assessments really affect achievement?**

Per Robert Slavin (2019), "Benchmark assessments are only useful if they improve scores on state accountability tests." However, the bad news is that "Research finds that benchmark assessments do not make any difference in achievement." This perspective is supported by studies that included benchmark assessments. A summary of findings for 6 elementary reading studies and 4 elementary math studies indicated mean effect sizes on achievement as essentially zero.

Slavin (2019) suggested possible reasons as to why benchmark assessments do not make a difference:

- "First, perhaps the most likely, is that teachers and schools do not do much with the information from benchmark assessments. ... Results of benchmark assessments are different for each student."
- A second reason is that "it takes time to score and return benchmark assessments, so by the time a team of teachers decides how to respond to benchmark information, the situation has moved on."
- "Third, benchmark assessments may add little because teachers and principals already know a lot more about their students than any test can tell them."

For those reasons, Slavin (2019) suggested schools can save a lot of time and money by eliminating benchmark assessments. "Yes, teachers need to know what students are learning and what is needed to improve it, but they have available many more tools that are far more sensitive, useful, timely, and tied to actions teachers can take."

Slavin's is only one perspective, however. Joan Herman and Eva Baker (2005) stated a similar perspective as that from Slavin in that "There is little sense in spending the time and money for elaborate testing systems if the tests do not yield accurate, useful information" (para. 3). To this end, their six criteria, noted in Making Benchmark Testing Work, provide guidelines that educators can use to develop, select, or purchase benchmark tests, which would make them work. Those criteria referred to alignment, diagnostic value, fairness, technical quality, utility, and feasibility. Systematic design and continual evaluation of outcomes are key.

**Concerned about CCSS Math Tests?**

Read Dr. Patricia Deubel's commentary,
Are
We Ready for Testing under Common Core State Standards?,
featured September 15, 2010, in *T.H.E.
Journal*. Learn about the rise of online testing and
concerns for educators who will be preparing students for new Common
Core State Standards assessments.

Readers might be interested in CCSSI Mathematics, a blog that "takes an independent look at the Common Core State Standards Initiative." Among concerns are those on question designs and learner potential problems in using technology to answer them.

**State and Consortia Assessments **

Most states release summative test items and CT4ME has links to those from this site.

In 2017 New Meridian took over management of PARCC's testing business and has a special site with resources. Of interest are its Released Items and Math Test Design. In the latter New Meridian includes test specifications, performance-level descriptors, evidence statements including calculator designations, and a Mathematics High Level Blueprint that "defines the total number of tasks and/or items for any given grade/course assessment, the item types, and the point values for each. These are intended to help the "general public better understand the design of the state summative assessments."

SBAC Practice and Training Tests include sets of assessment questions for grades 3–8 and high school in both English language arts/literacy and mathematics.

SBAC Tools for Teachers is an online collection of classroom resources with "Educator-created lessons, activities, strategies, and professional development to help tailor instruction and boost learning."

**Consortia Developing Alternative CCSS Assessments**

**For English Language Learners:**

**For Learners with Cognitive Disabilities:**

- Dynamic Learning Maps Alternate Assessment Consortium (DLM) is also developing assessments for learners with cognitive disabilities. There are two types of assessments that are being developed for DLM. The first is a stand-alone summative assessment that is adaptive. This test will be given in the spring of the year to assess what knowledge and skills have been learned throughout the year. The second is an instructionally embedded assessment that will be given throughout the year. (About the DLM System)
- National Center and State Collaborative developed common alternate assessments in English language arts and math for its partner states and curriculum/instructional resources to support teaching the Common Core State Standards to students with significant cognitive disabilities that can be used in any state. Also see the NCSC resources at its wiki.

Read more on K-12 Student Assessment Programs at the Educational Testing Service: K-12 Center.

Brainchild Online Assessment: Subscription based by schools or individuals. But demo questions are available online for your state. Lessons include multimedia instruction, study mode with immediate feedback, test mode with review of mistakes, self-directed student learning plan.

National Assessment of Educational Progress has released numerous questions from past NAEP assessments, along with data about student performance on specific questions. The NAEP mathematics assessment is given every two years to students at grades 4 and 8, and approximately every four years at grade 12. An overview of NAEP and major findings from past assessments are included. NAEP reports that the tools featured in Explore NAEP Questions "can be used to supplement classroom instruction, provide additional insight into the content of the assessment, and show what students nationally or in your state or district know and can do." Readers should consider, however, that the NAEP is not considered a high stakes test. The test does not measure any one particular student's performance, rather it provides a composite assessment. Gerald Bracey (2009) reported on characteristics that make it a poor accountability tool. For example, no student ever takes the entire test, nor do districts, schools, or individual students find out how they performed. Thus, students might not take NAEP as seriously as they would the ACT or SAT or their state high stakes tests (p. 33).

Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) from the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development surveys "15-year-olds in the principal industrialised countries. Every three years, it assesses how far students near the end of compulsory education have acquired some of the knowledge and skills essential for full participation in society." The U.S. is among participating countries. Sample questions are available. Gerald Bracey (2009) noted that PISA is not a high stakes test and points out flaws in using results as a measure of the quality of U.S. schools. Chief among those is comparing results of a nation with a diverse population of over 300-million people to results of small "homogeneous city-states like Hong Kong and Singapore." Formal schooling differs among nations as to when students start school, policies differ in relation to repeating grades, and schools might not be serving the entire population, particularly those from low-income families. The design of test items also fall into question when one considers difficulty in translating questions into several languages, and keeping those questions free of culture bias (p. 34).

**Alabama**:
Alabama Department of Education:
Assessment includes information about its state tests.

**Alaska**:
Assessments

**Arizona**:
Assessment
section. Also see the AzM2
Portal for Sample Tests.

**Arkansas**:
Arkansas
Department of Education Learning Services: Assessment

**California**: California Department of Education
Smarter Balanced Practice Tests

**Colorado**:
Colorado Assessment Division
Colorado also includes
samples of its performance assessments.

**Connecticut**:
Connecticut State Department of Education:
Comprehensive Assessment Program Portal includes practice and training
tests.

**Delaware**:
Delaware Mathematics Assessment
Aligned to the Common Core

**Florida**:
Florida
K-12 Student Assessment at the Florida Department of Education. Get released test questions and
Florida
practice tests for math grades 3-8, algebra 1, and geometry. Note: the Florida Department of Education, the National Science
Foundation, and FCR-STEM have provided funding for the
CPALMS (Collaborate,
Plan, Align, Learn, Motivate, Share) initiative whose mission is to provide
instructional resources vetted by peers and experts and professional development
for implementation of the standards. You'll find curriculum,
activity, and general resources and an extensive collection of lesson plans, and
more.

**Georgia**:
Georgia Department of Education Testing/Assessment Milestone
Resources include experience with online testing. Also see the
Mathematics section at GeorgiaStandards.org for additional resources.

**Hawaii**: Hawaii Statewide
Assessment Program Portal

**Idaho**:
Idaho
Department of Education: ELA/Literacy and Math Assessment
includes practice and training tests. Math sample items are listed for
grades 3-8 and high school in their portal:
https://idaho.portal.cambiumast.com/

**Illinois**:
Illinois State Board
of Education: Assessment includes assessment resources.

**Indiana**: Indiana
Department of Education has resources and sample test items in its
ILEARN portal.

**Iowa**:
Iowa Department of Education: Student Assessment.
See the Math
Practice Tests for grades 3-11.

**Kansas**:
Kansas State Department
of Education Note: See the Kansas State Department of Education
*Assessment
Literacy Project *available online with 21 modules appropriate
for all educators. W. James Popham provided the introductions to these modules.

**Kentucky**:
Kentucky
Department of Education released test items for end of course and K-PREP.

**Louisiana**:
The Louisiana Department of Education:
Assessments: Measuring Results includes an
assessment library.

**Maine**:
Maine's
Comprehensive Assessment System

**Maryland**:
Maryland State Department of Education See
practice tests
for mathematics in grades 3-8, algebra I, geometry, and algebra II.

**Massachusetts**:
Massachusetts State Department
of Education released test questions and practice tests from its comprehensive assessment system

**Michigan**:
Michigan Department of Education Student Assessment Program
includes sample questions at the website.

**Minnesota**:
Minnesota Department of Education
indicates testing resources, including item samplers and Pearson’s
Perspective, are available on the
PearsonAccess Next website.

**Mississippi**:
Mississippi Department of
Education Office of Student Assessment includes
practice test items
for grades 3-8 and high school (e.g., algebra 1).

**Missouri**:
Assessment
Resources and Resources for College-and-Career Readiness

**Montana**:
Montana Office of
Public Instruction: Statewide Testing

**Nebraska**:
Nebraska Statewide Assessment contains
sampler items for
math for grades 3-8.
Also see practice tests for grades 3-8 at the
Nebraska Student Center
Assessment System. Nebraska uses the ACT exam for high school learners
and has an
ACT exam prep site.

**Nevada**:
Nevada Department of
Education Standards and Assessments--Nevada uses SBAC and its practice tests
in grades 3-8 and ACT and its practice tests in grade 11. Note: The
Southern Nevada Regional Professional
Development Program includes math resources for elementary, middle, and high
school. These latter contain content units with notes (many indicating
alignments with Common Core math standards), worksheets, quizzes, practice tests.

**New Hampshire**:
New Hampshire Statewide Assessment
System includes its practice and training tests.

**New Jersey**:
New Jersey
Department of Education: Assessment

**New Mexico**:
New Mexico Standards Based Assessments

**New York**:

- New York State Education Department: See the section called Assessments in the Next Generation Learning Standards.
- NYSEDregents.org: Regents Examinations are listed for mathematics in grades 3-8, Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra 2, Integrated Algebra, Algebra 2/Trig, and Mathematics B. Other subject past exams are also listed.

**North Carolina**:
North Carolina Public Schools released test forms for grades 3-8 and
high school.

**North Dakota**:
North Dakota
State Assessment Program

**Ohio**:

- Ohio Department of Education Testing. Information about legally mandated testing of Ohio students. See the practice tests and sample test items for Ohio's State Tests, Ohio's Learning Standards-Mathematics, and Ohio's High School Graduation Requirements.
- Note: There are online practice tests and released items for students in K-12, and you can sign in as a guest. For grades 9-12 students can select from end of course exams and released items for algebra, geometry, integrated math I and II. Also see resources for high school tested courses for math, which include practice tests for algebra 1, geometry, math 1 and math 2.
- Note: Ohio's last administration of the Ohio Graduation Test was in 2022.
- Go Figure?
--According to the website, "The purpose of the
*Go Figure?*Interactive Multimedia Project is to help students review for the mathematics section of the Grades 5-7 Ohio Academic Achievement Tests." It contains videos (now on YouTube), a CD-ROM edu-game, print materials, and the website, all brought to you from the WOUB Center for Public Media." Materials are also appropriate for high school remediation. CT4ME is listed among resources for differentiated instruction.

**Oklahoma**:
Oklahoma Department of
Education: Office of Assessments Assessment materials for grades 3-8 and "end of instruction" secondary tests include a set
of representative released items. High school math includes algebra l,
algebra II, and geometry items.

**Oregon**:
Oregon Department of Education Student Assessment includes
sample
items and training tests for math.

**Pennsylvania**:
Pensylvania Department of Education Standards
Aligned System (SAS) contains an
Assessment section
with options such as: Project-based assessment, the state's Keystone Exams with
high school sample questions in algebra 1, algebra 2, and geometry, an
Assessment Creator, Reference Materials (e.g., formative assessment), and more.

**Rhode Island**:
Rhode Island
Department of Education: Instruction & Assessment: Mathematics contains
released items and practice tests.

**South Carolina**: South
Carolina State Department of Education The section on
Assessment Information
includes
Quick Links for Teachers
with sample test items for math in grades 3-8 and algebra 1.

**South Dakota**:
South Dakota Department of
Education: Assessment has information on its state testing program,
including a student practice site.

**Tennessee**:
Student Assessment in
Tennessee You'll find pdf files of
released test items in the section for TNReady.

**Texas**:
Texas Education Agency:
Student Assessment and
STAAR Released Test Questions

**Utah**:
Utah State Office of Education: Assessment.

**Vermont**:
The Vermont
Agency of Education includes an assessment section within Student Learning
with a portal to Smarter Balanced.

**Virginia**:
Released
Tests and Item Sets are available in mathematics for grades 3-8, algebra I, algebra
II, and geometry.

**Washington**:
Washington
State Testing. Practice and training tests related to Smarter Balanced
Assessments are available.

**West Virginia**:
WV Department of Education:
Assessment includes assessment resources.

**Wisconsin**:
Wisconsin
Department of Public Instruction assessment resources include sample
items from various tests given by the state, including for the Wisconsin
Forward Exam.

**Wyoming**:
Wyoming Department of Education Statewide Assessment System
includes portals for practice tests and other resources.

**Quick tips for standardized test preparation:** Read
Nell Duke and Ron Ritchhart's article
No Pain, High Gain:
Test Prep Tips for Reading Comprehension and Math
from Scholastic. They discuss strategies for reading
comprehension, mathematics, reducing test-taking stress (e.g., Don't skimp on
practice tests), and teaching format
fundamentals. In mathematics, for example:

- Make word problems a priority;
- Stress number sense;
- Focus on estimation; and
- Emphasize mental math.

ACT provides online test prep for this exam and tips for success.

CollegeAtlas.org: Study Skills Guides for College Students. While meant for college, this site has tips beneficial for all students, regardless of level. You'll find sections devoted to general study skills, reading and writing, test taking and preparation for a variety of test types, time management, memory techniques, and subject specific study skills that also include for math.

College Board offers test preparation materials, tips for success, and other information related to its tests: SAT, PSAT/NMSQT, the Advanced Placement program (AP Central), and College Level Examination Program (CLEP). The College Board and Khan Academy have a SAT Practice site designed to help learners prepare for the test.

Cuesta
College: Math Study Skills includes multiple pages of academic
support devoted to math study skills and test taking skills, referenced
from *Winning at Math*, a 1997 work by Paul D. Nolting, Ph.D. Of particular value are
the 10 steps to better test-taking.

Dr. Roger's Math Neighborhood on YouTube includes video solutions to past SAT questions to help students prepare for this exam, including from SAT practice tests offered by the College Board. Of value is that there are playlists grouped by topic, such as geometry, systems of equations, probability and statistics. You'll also find a series of video solutions to Math Level 1 and Math Level 2 questions.

Education Galaxy is a game-based program designed to help K-8 learners prepare for state testing. Users select their state to access questions aligned to the state's standards. Per the site, "Education Galaxy is a great tier 1 solution for practice, instruction, and assessment." A free basic account for teachers is available, and there are paid options. A program called Liftoff Adaptive Intervention is also available to help struggling and at-risk learners.

**HOT for AP Students**:
Fiveable provides free test prep
resources for students taking AP courses. AP Calculus AB/BC and AP
Statistics are among those. Resources include study plans, live
streams, study guides, free response help, practice questions. You'll
find information on the upcoming exam--what's on it, how it will be graded,
and what to focus on in your test prep. Of value is that students can
practice with others who will take the exam.

Formative Assessment Item Bank at Instructure includes assessment coverage for K-12 Math, English Language Arts, Science, and Social Studies. Assessments are aligned to state, Next Generation Science Standards, and Common Core standards. Item types include multiple choice, constructed response with rubrics, writing prompts with rubrics, and technology-enhanced items.

**HOT for CCSS**: Illustrative Mathematics
was founded in 2011 at the University of Arizona. Since then the project
has yielded "a comprehensive suite of math curricula, designed to encourage engaging
mathematical discussion, supported by tasks, lesson plans, and professional
learning." Tasks align with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Illustrative
tasks are available for the K-8 and High School standards. The project is an
initiative of the Institute for Mathematics and Education at the University of
Arizona and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Internet4Classrooms: Access activities on specific concepts within mathematics strands for grades 1-8 and an extensive list of standardized testing practice sites.

Intervention Central provides intervention ideas in the areas of general academic strategies, reading, writing, math, behavior modification, studying and organization, classroom management, and making rewards work. This site is brought to you by J. Wright, a school psychologist in Syracuse, New York.

IXL Math from IXL Learning is a math practice site, which has problem sets for preK-8, algebra 1, algebra 2, geometry, precalculus, and calculus. The site provides a colorful, engaging environment for mastering skills. The service is subscription based, but there is a free trial for teachers. Full benefits (e.g., student progress tracking and reports; and an awards system for learners who reach their goals) are gained with membership. IXL includes a diagnostic for six strands in math and also for a working math grade level.

Jefferson Lab (VA), although primarily for science education, has some good puzzles and games suitable for use with elementary students to help them master basic math facts using addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division; also practice use of < = >, place value, and coordinates. Speed to complete exercises in noted as a motivation element.

Khan Academy: SAT Test Prep: The College Board has teamed up with Khan Academy for free SAT Test Prep materials. Students will find hundreds of questions and a set of videos with step-by-step solutions to help prepare for this exam.

MathDrills by Elias Saab will help students to prepare for Mathcounts, SAT and ACT math problems. In addition, the basic skills sections can be used by students in upper elementary through high school settings. Answers and hints are provided. Sections include problems on distance, speed, and time; problems on job completion, roots of polynomials, factoring polynomials, percentage word problems, arithmetic and fraction attack (+, -, x, /), bases, linear equation drills, prime factorization, and LCM and GCD. Elias Saab also maintains The Online Test Page.

New Meridian includes released test items for grades 3-8 math and high school algebra 1, algebra 2, geometry, and integrated math among its resources. New Meridian indicates its item banks are aligned to the Common Core State Standards and compatible standards.

Shmoop offers fee-based test prep for multiple tests (e.g., SAT, ACT, AP exams, Common Core, PARCC, Smarter Balanced, GED). Some learning resources are free, including study guides and videos for math--well worth examining.

SparkNotes: Math Study Guides include review explanations and problem sets for pre-algebra, algebra 1 and 2; geometry 1,2, and 3; trigonometry, pre-calculus, and advanced placement calculus levels AB, BC1, and BC2. Other subjects are also included at this site.

Study.com has a series of video lessons to help prepare learners for standardized tests. Among those are GED Math (73 lessons); AP Calculus Exam Prep (173 lessons); PSAT: Practice & Study Guide (241 lessons); SAT: Practice & Study Guide (305 lessons); and ACT: Practice & Study Guide (384 lessons on multiple subjects, including math).

Study Island is a standards-based formative assessment and practice program in your state for elementary, middle, and high school grade levels and exit exams or end of course exams--whatever your state requires. It includes 12 technology enhanced item types. Study Island is a product of Edmentum, which stated "Students can work through questions using a standard test format, an interactive game format, printable worksheets, or a classroom response system." Pricing is available for the home, and schools/districts.

Test-Guide.com has free ACT practice tests. The site developers have gathered or written over 5,000 practice questions the for ACT. The practice tests are automatically scored and come with answer explanations. You'll also find official practice tests from ACT. Additional resources for study tips, subject-specific strategies and more are also available. Test-Guide also provides test prep resources for other major standardized tests.

That Quiz is a real find. K-12 students can select practice tests (customized for their needs) with varying degrees of difficulty using integers, fractions, concepts (time, money, measurement, place value, graphs), geometry, algebra, calculus, probability, and more. Some are interactive and offer manipulatives (e.g., ruler, protractor). Select to view in Spanish, if needed.

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Test your mathematics and science knowledge by completing TIMSS items in the Dare to Compare challenge! TIMSS provides reliable and timely data on the mathematics and science achievement of U.S. students compared to that of students in other countries. See how well your students stack up. Answers are provided as feedback.

USATestprep is a subscription based online product to help prepare high school, middle school, and elementary students for standardized testing. Materials include diagnostic assessments, performance tracking, practice questions (e.g., multiple choice, free response), games, interactive skill work, performance tasks, video content, instant feedback, and more. Free trials are available to qualified educators. Review products are aligned to individual state standards, including the Common Core (Take A Tour section, Engaging Content).

UWorld | College Readiness includes learning tools for AP courses. Math includes AP Calculus AB, AP Calculus BC, and AP Statistics. Test-prep questions are aligned to the College Board AP exams and include detailed feedback explaining solutions.

Varsity Tutors: Practice Tests is a free section of the Varsity Tutors website where you will find practice test questions and flashcards in multiple subject areas. When viewing math tests, for example, learners can select the concept to practice. Explanations for answers are included. Among K-12 math practice tests are grades K-8, basic geometry, algebra 1, algebra 2, trigonometry, precalculus, calculus (including AP), and more. You'll also find math related to the ACT, GED, CLEP, GMAT, GRE, HSPT, ISEE, and SAT exams.

**Know the Purpose of the Test You Take!**

According to W. James Popham (2016), we need to acknowledge that "validity depends on the purpose for which a test is to be used" (p. 46). There are three primary purposes of tests:

- Comparison among test takers, which can be made on student-by-student
basis (e.g., "percentile-based status in relation to that of a norm
group) or group-by-group status (e.g., "assigning students to such
qualitatively distinct categories as
*advanced, proficient, basic, or below basic*") - Improvement of ongoing instruction and learning, which is integral to formative assessment of the same students
- Evaluation of instruction (p. 47).

There are two phrases describing tests of student achievement that are discussed in the literature: norm-referenced and criterion-referenced. Mark O'Shea (2005) provided a difference between the two:

- Norm-referenced standardized tests are used "to compare the performance of a student or group of students with the performance of a population of other students, typically a state or national population, [but] they serve no purpose in measuring student achievement of the content of the standards."
- Criterion-referenced standards-based tests "measure the performance of a student or a group of students in relation to skills and knowledge of state standards and frameworks." This type of test is now used by many states. (p. 41)

Although O'Shea (2005) noted two kinds of standardized tests, Popham (2014) indicated: "Although test developers may build tests
they believe will provide accurate norm-referenced or
criterion-referenced inferences, a test itself should never be
characterized as norm-referenced or criterion referenced" (p. 64).
It's a common misconception. "What's criterion referenced or
norm-referenced is the *inference about*, or the *
interpretation of* a test taker's score" (p. 64). This
clarification is important if one is using precise language. To
emphasize, "it's *score-based inferences*--not tests--that are
criterion-referenced or norm-referenced" (p. 64). Thus,
educators should know how test results will be interpreted. According to Popham,
"To support actionable instructional decisions about how best to teach
students, norm referenced inferences simply don't cut it" (p. 64).

Per Popham (2016), "the primary purpose of a particular educational test
... should *dominate* the decision making of those who are building
the test as well as those who are evaluating it. Currently, emphasis
on purpose is absent from U.S. educational testing" (p. 49).

**Become Familiar with Standardized Testing Terms**

The following will help you to better understand terms associated with standardized testing: Glossary of Testing, Measurement, and Statistical Terms from Houghton, Mifflin, and Harcourt.

**Understand Test Accommodations for Students with Special Needs**

Students with special needs such as those with disabilities, limited
English language and English language learners also are subject to
taking large-scale assessments, including standardized tests.
Data Recognition Corporation (2017) developed *Guidelines to Inclusive Test Administration* to help educators use
appropriate test accommodations and then make valid and useful
interpretations for both criterion- and norm-referenced test scores.
Guidelines fall within three categories:

**Category 1**. "Category 1 accommodations are not expected to influence
student performance in a way that alters the standard interpretation of
either criterion- or norm-referenced test scores. Individual student
scores obtained using Category 1 accommodations should be interpreted in
the same way as the scores of other students who take the test under
default conditions. These students’ scores should be included in
summaries of results without notation of accommodation(s)" (p. 5).
Examples: Students take the test alone or in a study carrel, or have
directions read aloud or recorded. ELL might need bilingual
directions. Some students might need to give responses to a scribe
or use sign language.

**Category 2**. "Category 2 accommodations may have an effect on student
performance that should be considered when interpreting individual
criterion- and norm-referenced test scores" (p. 6). Examples: Students
are given extra time to complete a timed test. ELL are given audiotaped test items provided in native language version or a
side-by-side bilingual test or translated version provided for content
other than Reading and Writing.

**Category 3**. "Category 3 accommodations are likely to change what is
being measured and have an effect that alters the interpretation of
individual criterion- and norm-referenced scores. This occurs when the
accommodation is strongly related to the knowledge, skill, or ability
being measured (e.g., the use of a Braille test where not all items in
the non-Braille version are administered in Braille)" (p. 7).
Example: Students are permitted to use calculators or tables on a math
computation test when the intention is to measure computation skills
without calculator use.

**Have you made appropriate accommodations for students
with disabilities or English language learners?**

The National Center for Educational Outcomes provides links to states for their information related to Accessibility and Accomodations for Students with Disabilities.

The Metropolitan Center for Research on Equity and the Transformation of Schools has developed Bilingual Glossaries and Cognates, which "provide permitted testing accomodations for ELL/MLL students." They include key terms in ELA, math, science, and social studies translated into multiple languages. These serve as accommodations for learners who need them for testing and should be used in instruction throughout the year. The bilingual glossaries are an expected test accommodation in New York, for example. Math glossaries include elementary school, middle school, high school integrated algebra, high school geometry, high school algebra 2, high school calculus, an addenda for high school Common Core math terms, and supplementary math glossaries. They can be downloaded, printed, and disseminated to educators, learners, and parents.

The Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) assessments include summative assessments for accountability purposes and optional interim assessments for instructional use and will use computer adaptive testing to the greatest extent possible. Assessments go beyond multiple choice questions to include extended response and technology enhanced items, as well as performance tasks that allow students to demonstrate critical-thinking and problem-solving skills.

Read SBAC updates for Accessibility and Accommodations that outline the kinds of testing supports and tools that will be made available to all students, and particularly those with disabilities and English-language learners for the Common Core assessments.

Bracey, G. (2009). The big tests: What ends do they serve?
*Educational Leadership, 67*(3), 32-37.
https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/the-big-tests-what-ends-do-they-serve

Data Recognition Corporation. (2017). *Guidelines to inclusive test administratio*n.
Maple Grove, MN: Author.
http://tabetest.com/PDFs/TABE_Guidelines_to_Inclusive_Testing_2017.pdf

Herman, J. L., & Baker, E. L. (2005). Making benchmark testing work.
*Educational Leadership, 63*(3), 48-54.
https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/making-benchmark-testing-work

O'Shea, M. (2005). *From standards to success*. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Popham, W. J. (2014). Criterion-referenced measurement: Half a century wasted?
*Educational Leadership, 71*(6), 62-66.
https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/criterion-referenced-measurement-half-a-century-wasted

Popham, W. J. (2016). Standardized tests: Purpose is the point.
*Educational Leadership, 73*(7), 44-49.
https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/standardized-tests-purpose-is-the-point

Slavin, R. (2019, April 11). Benchmark assessments: Weighing the pig more
often? *Robert Slavin's Blog*.
https://robertslavinsblog.wordpress.com/2019/04/11/benchmark-assessments-weighing-the-pig-more-often/

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