**Math Topics**- Common Core
- Initiatives
- Methodology
- Resources
- Projects
- Manipulatives
- Software

**Learning Support**- Standardized Test Prep
- Technology Integration
- Assisting Readers

**Professionalism**- Associations
- Journals
- News
- Professional Development
- Education Standards
- Education Research
- CT4ME Publications

K-12 Lesson Plans, Worksheets, and Publishers' Textbook Support Sites

Our collection of Math Resources has multiple pages designed for teaching within specific grade bands. You'll also find valuable collections of support and enrichment resources that will benefit all learners.

Math Resources (Page 1): Elementary and Middle Levels: Basic Mathematics and Skills Development, plus apps for mobile devices

Math Resources (Page 2): Middle, Secondary, Post-Secondary Subject Specific Resources, including apps for mobile devices: Algebra and Pre-Algebra, Geometry, Statistics, Probability, Trigonometry, Precalculus and Calculus

Math Resources (Page 3): K-12 Supplementary Collections: Miscellaneous Math Collections; Practical Applications--Math in Careers, Daily Life, and Across the Curriculum; and Problem Solving

Math Resources (Page 4): Enrichment and Extra Help: Math Contests, Competitions, Challenges, and Camps; Study Skills and Homework Help, plus tips for parent involvement; and Dictionaries, Glossaries, Reference Sheets, and Math Encyclopedias

**Math
Resources (Page 5)**:

- Lesson Plans and Worksheets
- Design and Manage Your Own Lesson Plans
- Publishers' Textbook Support Sites

Math Resources (Page 6): Resources for Podcasts and Vodcasts, the Flipped Learning Model, and for Whiteboards, including tips on using whiteboards

**Are you wondering how well lessons align to
the Common Core Math Standards?**

You might consider using the EQuIP Rubric: Mathematics available from Achieve the Core, which is a tool for evaluating lesson plans and units of instruction in K-12 mathematics for their alignment to CCSS. EQuIP stands for Educators Evaluating the Quality of Instructional Products.

- "Lessons that include instructional activities and assessments aligned to the CCSS that may extend over a few class periods or days"
- "Units that include integrated and focused lessons aligned to the CCSS that extend over a longer period of time"

Note: The rubric is not intended for evaluating a single task or activity.

EngageNY includes a Tri-State Quality Review Rubric for Lessons & Units for Mathematics, which can be used to rate a lesson or unit on four levels: alignment to the rigor of the CCSS, key areas of focus in the CCSS, instructional supports, and assessment.

**Need lesson planning
templates? **

CORE provides free CCSS Lesson Planning/Design Templates.

**Do you wish to develop your own worksheets?**

Wizer.me helps you make "smarter" worksheets that are interactive and easily provide feedback. Wizer Lite is free for creating worksheets and you can assign them via URL \ Google Classroom \ Edmodo. Paid premium versions include additional features.

Algebra Help from Wyzant includes lessons, calculators, and worksheets for students and teachers of algebra.

All Kids Network has math worksheets for preK and lower elementary grades. For example, the collection includes numbers and patterns for preschool, then comparison, measurement, money, skip counting, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, number bonds, tens and ones, graphing, time, odd/even numbers, and greater/less than.

BetterLesson includes lesson plans, classroom materials, and instructional resources, which have been submitted by teachers. This is a free resource. Educators will also appreciate the lessons aligned to the Common Core standards for math.

Centre for Innovation in
Mathematics Teaching (CIMT) was established in 1986 at the University of
Exeter in the UK and is now housed at the University of Plymouth. Content
is focused on research and curriculum development for mathematics teaching and
learning. K-12 educators will be particularly interested in the CIMT
curriculum resources, such as "pupil texts, lesson plans, classroom resources,
assessment materials and on-line interactive resources." Resources
also include a section for math misconceptions and the project, *The Mathematics Enhancement Programme*,
which offers school curriculum and teaching material (posted online) for
mathematics for all grade levels with lesson plans, copymasters, and tests.

Common Core Sheets is a collection of K-8 worksheets in math, social studies, science, language arts, writing, and spelling. Worksheets for math can be selected by grade level and then by standard.

**HOT for CCSS Implementation**:
CPALMS
(Collaborate, Plan, Align, Learn, Motivate, Share) initiative provides
instructional resources, which are vetted by peers and experts, and professional
development for implementation of the Common Core Standards. You find
curriculum, activity, and general resources that include an extensive
collection of lesson plans, worksheets, virtual manipulatives,
problem-solving tasks, data sets, web quests, projects, videos, educational games,
formative assessments, teaching ideas, units, lesson study, and more.
The site received funding from the Florida Department of Education, the
National Science Foundation, and FOR-STEM.

DadsWorksheets.com has "thousands of math-related worksheets: math facts, place value problems, addition without carrying, subtraction without borrowing, suites of multiplication tests using various methodologies, fractions and more." Worksheets are free and designed to help learners to master concepts through repetition. There are some pre-algebra and basic geometry worksheets, and a section with worksheets organized by K-6 grade level. Per a personal communication (June 10, 2016), developer "Jim "Dad" started the website for kids. He wanted to help his kids learn about math using all the worksheets he created by himself. He has a master's degree in computer science." This site also has a series of online calculators.

Defined STEM is a subscription service that provides project-based lessons for preK-12. It features performance tasks (cross-curricular in nature), literacy tasks, constructed responses in which students engage in real-world applications of concepts within a context of a career/industry. A real-world video sets the stage for each lesson. The curriculum is built around the Understanding by Design Framework, which was co-authored by Jay McTighe. A standards grid shows how tasks and related products align with state and national standards (e.g., Common Core ELA and Math). Rubrics are provided to help grade student work. A free trial is available.

EdHelper.com contains hundreds of lessons, worksheets, and WebQuests for K-12 mathematics. Lessons include addition, algebra, applied math, arithmetic, calculators, calculus, discrete math, division, fractions, functions, games, geometry, graphing, measurement, money, numbers, operations, precalculus, probability, statistics, stories, and trigonometry. Materials, including test prep questions, are available by grade level. EdHelper worksheets use different numbers and solutions each time.

Education.com has free worksheets and activities for math (and other content areas) for grades preK-5, middle school, and high school. Topics range from preschool counting all the way up to more complex high school puzzles.

Education World's Math Worksheet Library contains printable math lessons selected from the resources of Teacher Created Materials. The lessons are arranged by grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). Answer keys are provided for lessons that require them.

Google: Exploring Computational Thinking (CT) contains classroom-ready lessons, worksheets, and examples illustrating how educators can incorporate CT into the K-12 curriculum. You'll find everyday applications, too, such as pattern recognition, algorithm design, and other computational thinking skills. Content was developed by teachers in collaboration with Google software engineers; math addresses pre-algebra, algebra, geometry, and calculus. Additional features include a Getting Started Guide, web resources, and a discussion forum to connect with other CT educators. Readers might be particularly interested in the conceptual frameworks and how-to papers listed in web resources for incorporating CT into every classroom.

HaveFunTeaching.com includes free printable worksheets, activities, flash cards, songs, tools, and videos for grades K-5. There's also a blog. Common Core workbooks for K-5 are available for a fee.

Illuminations from the NCTM has over 700 lesson plans and over 100 activities (virtual manipulatives, applets, and games), all searchable by NCTM Principles and Standards and Common Core State standards. There are 13 Calculation Nation games, and issues from its e-newsletter Bright Ideas.

K5Learning has free math worksheets for grades 1-6 on multiple topics, and math worksheets for preschool and kindergarten. K5Learning "is an online reading and math program for kids in kindergarten to grade 5."

K-12 Financial Literacy Lesson Plans from Mortage Calculator includes lesson plans, activities, and tools for gradebands preK-4, 5-8, and 9-12. Topics address National Standards for K-12 Personal Finance Education. You'll find sections for financial responsibility and decision making, income and careers, planning and money management, credit and debt, risk management and insurance, and saving and investing.

Kuta Software has free worksheets for pre-algebra, algebra 1, geometry, and algebra 2. However, by purchasing the software teachers can generate their own worksheets and tests with multiple choice and free-response questions from parameters they select.

Math-Aids.Com is a free resource for anyone who wishes to use math worksheets to reinforce basic skills. Print an unlimited number of worksheets and answers to problems, which are randomly generated. You can choose several different types of math worksheets for each topic to cover various types of problems. There are over 80 different topics and over 1000 unique worksheets. Some of those topics are: "Addition, Algebra 1, Decimals, Division, Estimation, Exponents, Fact Family, Factors, Flash Cards, Fractions, Function Tables, Geometry, Graph Paper, Graphing, Greater Than Less Than, Hundreds Chart, In and Out Boxes, Integers, Kindergarten, Mean Mode Median & Range, Measurement, Mixed Problems, Money, Multiplication, Number Bonds, Number Lines, Order of Operations, Patterns, Percent, Place Value, Pre-Algebra, Probability, Properties, Pythagorean Theorem, Radicals, Ratios, Rounding, Significant Figures, Skip Counting, Subtraction, Telling Time, Venn Diagrams, Word Games and Word Problems."

Math Fact Cafe allows users to generate free custom K-5 math worksheets on basic facts, multiplication, counting, time, money, and word problems. There's also a category for conversions, both U.S. and metric. You can also access hundreds of pre-generated math worksheets and flashcards organized by grade level.

MathX.net has over 1,000 free worksheets organized in categories and sorted by difficulty: basic math operations, numbers, geometry, equations, inequalities, graphing, and linear equations. Exams are also available.

Math Fact Cafe provides generators for creating free math worksheets and access to pre-made worksheets. The site also includes flashcards, time, and money problems. The focus is for topics studied in grades K-5.

Math Is Fun from the UK addresses K-12 math in a fun learning environment. It has a mix of math concepts explained in easy language, plus puzzles, games and quizzes. Suitable for students, teachers and parents. Subjects covered include multiplication tables, long division, fractions, percentages, platonic solids, angles, triangles and basic algebra. It has printable worksheets to practice on, and answers can be printed separately for scoring. The illustrated math dictionary is well done.

Math Archives, maintained by the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, is a comprehensive source on various topics in mathematics, software for teaching K-12, and teaching materials (including lesson plans) ranging from K-12 to college calculus. Materials also include contests and competitions at each level, and problem sets of the week or month. There is an extensive list of professional societies related to mathematics.

Math-Drills.com claims over 50 thousand free printable math worksheets. There are a variety of topics in basic arithmetic, base-10 blocks, algebra, fractions, measurement, geometry, statistics, number sense, money, word problems, and more.

Math Worksheet Center encourages a paid subscription to over 8000 K-12 printable worksheets. It's well organized by grade, topic, skills, and age of students. The site offers a limited number of free worksheets and over 130 free math teaching and learning articles, however. Membership includes all worksheets, lessons, answers, quizzes, and homework.

Math Worksheet Site will allow you to create printable math worksheets, either with or without answers, from your browser. These are suitable for elementary students learning basic arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division), measurement, telling time, least common multiples, reducing fractions. Number lines and coordinate plane grids for graphing can be generated, and a 100 block chart (useful for introducing prime numbers).

MathWarehouse.com features free printable worksheets with answers for algebra, geometry, algebra, and trigonometry, many with additional web resources for math concepts.

Math Worksheets Land features preK-8 and high school worksheets with guided lessons that include the alignment of each to the Common Core standards. Worksheets are listed by topic and grade level. High school includes number & quantity, functions, algebra, geometry, and statistics & probability.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Lessons are among classroom resources. These are searchable by type, grade, and Common Core math standard.

Noetic Learning Math Worksheet Creator includes free drill and practice worksheets with randomly generated problems. Teachers can set criteria for problems displayed in number sense and place value, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, money, and fractions. The paid membership gives access to other topics in elementary math. The format for presenting problems with the worksheet creator is horizontal, so students may need to recopy problems to paper to line up numbers appropriately for completing calculations. Answers can be entered online and correct answers are displayed when students indicate they are done.

PBS LearningMedia includes free media resources searchable by grade level, standards, media type, and subject. Resources include video and audio segments, interactives, images, documents, lesson plans, productivity tools for teachers, self-paced lessons, and student-oriented activities. You'll find media from NOVA, Frontline, American Experience, and other public broadcasting and content partners. The mathematics section features K-8 mathematics strands, and high school number and quantity, algebra, geometry, functions, statistics and probability. Highly recommended.

Polyup offers "a free and open computational thinking playground" for K-12 learners that works on any internet-enabled device. Users can "Modify expressions, functions, and algorithms to discover the beauty of math." There are targeted lesson plans grouped within four grade bands. A unique feature of the site is its "poly machines" for investigations of math topics. Students can also participate in the "Poly Challenge" involving creative problem solving and prizes for schools and classrooms.

Science NetLinks includes lessons organized by Project 2061 benchmarks, which outlines what all students should know in science and mathematics by the end of grades 2, 5, 8 and 12. Focus is science, mathematics, and technology, and habits of mind. Numerous links to supporting websites are included. This is a not to miss site.

Share My Lesson includes K-12 teaching resources in multiple subjects created by teachers around the globe for teachers. Resources are divided into grade bands and for special populations. The site is free and also provides "an online community where teachers can collaborate with, encourage and inspire each other. Share My Lesson has a significant resource bank for Common Core State Standards, covering all aspects of the standards, from advice and guides to help with dedicated resources that support the standards" (About Us section). The site was developed by the American Federation of Teachers and TES Connect. Math subcategories include curriculum, games/puzzles, lesson plans, review/test prep, tests/assessments, worksheets/handouts. Searches can be narrowed to find what you need.

STatistics
Education Web (STEW) provides online peer-reviewed lesson
plans for K-12 math and science teachers who teach statistics concepts
in their classrooms. These are organized by grade band and include
statistical concepts being addressed. "The statistical concepts
follow the recommendations of the
*Guidelines for
Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) Report: A
Pre-K-12 Curriculum Framework*,* Common Core State Standards for Mathematics*,
and *NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics*" (STEW
description section).

SuperKids Math Worksheets--a free site to generate drill and practice worksheets with customization options provided (e.g., using negative integers and decimals, number of problems and parameters), including answers. Various topics include addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, rounding, averages, time, order of operations, percents, greater than/less than, factorials, exponents, and odd/even. There is a tool to determine if a number is prime.

Super Teacher Worksheets is a free site primarily for elementary grades with pre-constructed math worksheets with answers. Worksheets are organized by level of difficulty and topic. Other content areas are included.

Teacher Advisor for K-8 math features standards-aligned materials from OER sources. You'll find lesson plans from EngageNY, Florida's CPALMS, the North Carolina Department of Instruction, the Massachusetts Department of Instruction, Share My Lesson from the AFT, Student Achievement Partners and Open Up Resources. Each grade level has its own section for standards, lessons, activities, and math strategies and resources, including videos.

TeAch-nology has an extensive collection of over 2,000 free printable worksheets for math ranging in skills for grades 1-12. There is also an extensive collection of lesson plans for math at various grade levels.

TES based in England boasts "the largest network of teachers in the world." Teachers freely share lesson plans, games, worksheets, teaching ideas, and activities in numerous content areas. The site also includes teaching resources for learners with special educational needs. Mathematics resources are available at the pre-school, primary and secondary levels.

Utah Education Network contains an extensive set of core lesson plans in elementary and secondary mathematics, and other content areas, in their K-12 education section. These are of high quality.

Van de Walle Professional Mathematics Series Blackline Masters for the Teaching Student Centered Mathematics texts for grades K-3, 3-5, and 5-8 are freely available online related to topics covered at those levels. These are great for worksheets.

Virginia Department of Education has posted sample lesson plans and activities for elementary, middle and high school math. A plus is the additional instructional videos for teachers to assist with implementation of math standards.

Worksheet Library has several thousand printable K-8 worksheets in PDF format for teachers, parents, and home-schooled students. While there are hundreds offered for free, there is a nominal yearly fee for access to all. Answers are provided. Subjects addressed include mathematics, language arts, science, and social studies. Graphic organizers and time savers are a plus.

Every teacher needs a unit plan and daily lesson plan. Stiliana Milkova (n.d.) elaborated on Strategies for Effective Lesson Planning and included the following six steps for preparing a lesson plan:

- Outline learning objectives and prioritize them.
- Develop the introduction to the lesson that stimulates interest and encourages thinking.
- Plan the specific learning activities, which is the main body of the lesson.
- Plan to check for understanding.
- Develop a conclusion summarizing the main points of the lesson and a preview of the next lesson. Students might also provide this closure.
- Develop a realistic timeline indicating the approximate time for completing each element of the lesson. (Milkova, n.d.)

At Step 4, consider giving learners options to demonstrate their understanding, such as by using math menus and choice boards. Per BetterLesson.com, "The choice board strategy can be used to present students with new information, to have students practice and master academic content, to assess student mastery, or as a combination of all three" (About This Strategy section). You'll find implementation steps for several types, including blended, digital, and tic-tac-toe choice boards, choice boards for leveled groups, key questions to ask, tech tools, and how to use choice boards with special education and English learners. At smore.com, you'll find discussion and math examples of choice boards: tic-tac-toe and menus.

Math teachers will appreciate the following books on choice by Laurie Westphal. Each includes reproducible menus, based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy, and multiple menu types:

- Differentiating Instruction with Menus: Math (Grades K-2) (2010) includes three-shape, tic-tac-toe, meal, 2-5-8, give me five, and list menus. Topics addressed include numbers and number sense, operations, geometry, and measurement.
- Differentiating Instruction with Menus: Math (Grades 3-5) (2nd ed.) (2016) includes tic-tac-toe, list, 2-5-8, baseball, and game show menus. Topics addressed include whole numbers and operations, fractions, probability and statistics, geometry, measurement, and problem solving.
- Differentiating Instruction with Menus: Math (Grades 6-8) (2009) includes tic-tac-toe, list, 2-5-8, baseball, and game show menus. Topics addressed include numbers and operations, geometry, graphing and measurement, and basic algebra.
- Differentiating Instruction with Menus: Algebra I/II (2013) includes meal, tic-tac-toe, list, 20-50-80, and game show menus. Topics addressed include numbers, equations, graphing, and polynomials found in algebra I/II.
- Differentiating Instruction With Menus: Geometry (2019) for grades 9-12 includes two parts. Part 1 is all about menus and choice. Part 2 includes five chapters that delve into specific menues for foundational skills, two- and three-dimentional figures, lines, circles, logic, constructions, and probability. The books aligns with a number of Common Core standards.

Step 5 in the plan is sometimes missing in lessons when time is running short and the teacher has not anticipated how to adjust a lesson quickly, as needed, per Step 6. As every lesson should have closure, Todd Finley (2015) provided 22 Powerful Closure Activities for ending a lesson and creating a lasting impression of its content.

If you are planning a lesson involving technology, consider the affect of screen time on learners, as excessive screen time has been shown to impact physical health. Kecia Ray (2020) provided the following tips for teachers to balance screen time during instruction:

- Utilize a blended learning instructional model
- Interval lessons with on-screen digital content (video, text reading, software applications) - 20 minutes
- Prioritize videoconferencing
- Use flipped learning strategies
- Take advantage of other media platforms if appropriate (paper is still a good technology to rely on)
- Prioritize activities where students use technology for creation versus consumption (see TIMS matrix).

Common Core Math Lesson Design Template is a docx file from Sonoma County (CA) Office of Education.

National Institute for Excellence in Teaching has lesson planning templates for virtual learning. These also provide technology ideas for use in planning for any setting.

PlanbookEdu is free lesson planning software that enables you to store your data online. The free version includes one planbook per year, which you can customize. For a nominal fee, you can get unlimited planbooks per year, printing and sharing features, and embed your lesson planbook in your own web site.

Universal Design for Learning Lesson Builder from the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). Learn more about universal design for learning, explore model lesson plans designed using UDL principles, then create, save and edit your own UDL lesson plans. You will create an account for this latter, but it is free.

**Do you need help with K-5 math lesson planning?**

Teacher Advisor supports K-5 math instruction and offers "free lesson planning and instructional guidance with the power of IBM Watson. .... With Watson's teacher-specific search and [targeted] recommendation tool, you can now find relevant lessons, activities, standards information, and strategies" quickly. Content has been vetted by educators across the country. You'll find "standards-aligned materials from OER resources" and teacher strategy videos, and more. Sign-up for free just by providing your email address.

**Learn more about Universal Design for Learning.**

CAST, the Center for Applied Special Technology, explains what universal design for learning (UDL) is all about. Materials and lessons designed according to UDL give students multiple means of representing concepts so that they have several ways to acquire information and knowledge, multiple means of engagement to tap into their interests, offer appropriate challenges and maintain or increase motivation, and multiple means of expressing what they have learned.

National Center on Universal Design for Learning is a program by CAST. "Founded in 2009, the National UDL Center supports the effective implementation of UDL by connecting stakeholders in the field and providing resources and information" on this topic (About the UDL Center section).

You'll find materials at each of these sites, which can be accessed online or as a download. Some downloads are free; others might have restrictions.

Agile Mind in collaboration with the Dana Center at The University of Texas in Austin developed programs for middle school math, Algebra I, Intensified Algebra I (for learners one to three grade levels behind in mathematics), Geometry, Algebra II, Precalculus, AP Calculus, and AP Statistics. Agile Mind and the Dana Center are also developers of The Mathematics Common Core Toolbox, a gallery of selected animations to help learners master mathematics noted in the aforementioned middle and high school courses.

Big Ideas Learning, founded by
Dr. Ron Lawson, has produced a series of math books for middle school and high school
(algebra 1, geometry, algebra 2) aligned to the
Common Core Standards. * Big Ideas Math* programs
are distributed by National Geographic Learning. Middle school programs prepare students in the
regular focus to take algebra 1 or integrated math 1 in grade 9. There are
also compacted and advanced pathways that prepare learners to take algebra 1 or
integrated math 1 in grade 8. Student editions for middle and high school include
English and Spanish audio. Online home editions include multi-language glossaries,
basic skills and skills review handbooks. There are interactive
manipulatives and tools, online chat tutors, an assessment system including
progress monitoring, performance tasks, projects with rubrics, interactive whiteboard lessons, real
life STEM videos, tutorial videos, and more.

Bookshare.org is an online library of digital books for people with print disabilities (e.g., visual, physical, and learning). "Bookshare Members download books, textbooks and newspapers in a compressed, encrypted file. They then read the material using adaptive technology, typically software that reads the book aloud (text-to-speech) and/or displays the text of the book on a computer screen, or Braille access devices, such as refreshable Braille displays. Through an award from the U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), Bookshare offers free memberships to U.S. schools and qualifying U.S. students." (sec: How Bookshare Works) There are over 200 math textbooks listed, for example, many of which are from leading commercial publishers and open-source content developers.

College Preparatory Mathematics offers curriculum for grades 6-12 and has a student, teacher, and parent resource center online. The student Skill Builders are particularly useful for extra problem sets with answers and additional explanations for topics in the following texts: Foundations for Algebra 1 & 2, Math 1 (algebra 1), Math 2 (geometry), Math 3 (algebra 2), Algebra Connections, Geometry Connections.

Education Place from Houghton Mifflin Company has textbook support materials with pre-K–6 resources for teachers, students, and families to support instruction in the classroom and at home.

Great Minds: Eureka Math. "Great
Minds offers the *Eureka Math* curriculum
as PDF downloads for free, non-commercial use." The curriculum "includes over 20,000 pages
and features sequenced lessons, formative assessments, and
fully integrated professional development for Grades PK-12. The package
includes: Student and Teacher editions, Curriculum Maps, Curriculum
Overviews, and Release Notes." Note: There is a 30-day free trial to
Eureka Math Digital Suite.

Investigations in Number, Data, and Space contains K-5 resources for educators to supplement this text. The text was developed at TERC and "is designed to help all children understand fundamental ideas of number and operations, geometry, data, measurement and early algebra" (TERC Welcome to Investigations section). TERC has additional resources. Ordering is via Pearson, linked from the TERC site.

McGraw-Hill: Everyday Mathematics for preK-6 has digital technology to accompany texts. It aligns with the Common Core standards. Everyday Mathematics was developed by the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project.

Prentice Hall Mathematics Textbook Resources include digital resources for texts such as Mathematics for Middle School: Courses 1, 2, 3 and Algebra Readiness; the Connected Math 2 series for grades 6-8, Pre-Algebra, Algebra 1, Algebra 2 with Trig, and Geometry. Precalculus and calculus are also available.

CK-12 Foundation is a "non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-content, web-based collaborative model termed the "FlexBook," CK-12 intends to pioneer the generation and distribution of high quality educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning." Teachers can search for texts aligned to Common Core standards and other state and standard sets, by subject, and by grade. You'll find math sections on grades 1-5, arithmetic, measurement, algebra, geometry, probability, statistics, trigonometry, analysis, and calculus. For example, the section for elementary math for grades 1-5 aligned to the Common Core standards contains interactive math practice problems, videos, video hints, and full step-by-step solutions, all free. Also see the CK-12 Foundation Dedicated Channel for videos on YouTube.

IvyPanda (study and writing tips for smart students) includes a library of links to open-source textbooks in multiple subjects, including mathematics and a separate category for statistics.

MERLOT provides peer-reviewed online teaching and learning materials in numerous categories. Education, and mathematics/statistics are among those.

MIT OpenCourseware. See
*Calculus* by Gilbert Strang, a 1991 text still in print from
Wellesley-Cambridge Press. The book covers
single variable and multivariable calculus in depth, and is rich with
applications. There is also an online Instructor's Manual and a student
Study Guide, all freely available for download on MIT's OpenCourseWare
site.

The Orange Grove is Florida's Digital Repository, which contains a database of open-source textbooks. A few of those suitable for school mathematics include the Handbook of Essential Mathematics (2006), College Algebra (2009) and Elementary Calculus: An Infinitesimal Approach (2nd ed., 2007).

Open Culture boasts "the best free cultural & educational media on the web." In addition to online courses, language lessons, eBooks, audio books, movies, and cultural icons, there's an extensive list of free textbooks on the web, including for mathematics.

OpenStax publishes free peer-reviewed online textbooks and print editions at a low cost. You'll find multiple books for math. Content is primarily for upper level courses, including college. There's also an online math homework system at a nominal fee with step-by-step feedback.

Open Textbook Library hosted by the University of Minnesota contains free texts in numerous disciplines, including textbooks that can be used in upper level math courses.

Wikiversity invites teachers, students, and researchers to join their endeavors to create open education resources and collaborative learning communities. The project is devoted to learning resources, learning projects, and research for use at all levels and types of education from pre-school to university, professional development, and informal learning. Visit the Wikiversity Math Portal.

**
Students have a vision of their ideal online textbook.**

More and more schools are now using online content to support their curricula.
In selected findings from a national survey conducted by Project Tomorrow, titled
*Speak Up 2008 for Students, Teachers, Parents and Administrators*,
students in grades 6–12 provided their views on their ultimate digital textbook.
Here's a sampling of the kinds of electronic features and functionality that they would like to use:

- Ability to personalize their book with electronic highlights and notes (63 percent);
- Ability to take quizzes and tests on their own to assess their own content proficiency (62 percent) or use self-paced tutorials (46 percent);
- Access links to such real-time data as NASA and Google Earth (52 percent);
- Tap into the expertise of an online tutor whenever necessary (53 percent);
- Link to PowerPoints of class lectures that supported the textbook content (55 percent);
- Explore concepts through games (57 percent) or animations and simulations (55 percent);
- Access content outside of school through links to videoconferences (30 percent) or podcasts from subject experts (34 percent); and
- Watch video clips about topics they are studying (51 percent) and create podcasts or videos to support their own learning (48 percent). (Project Tomorrow, 2009, p. 7).

This ultimate digital textbook would "mimic the way they are approaching learning in general, with heavy emphasis on communications, collaboration, creating content and overall taking control of the learning process themselves" (p. 7).

**Can an e-text meet everyone's needs?**

Read Patricia Deubel's article: E-textbooks: Points to ponder on
pixels and paper. *T.H.E. Journal*. Available:
https://thejournal.com/articles/2006/10/04/etextbooks-points-to-ponder-on-pixels-and-paper.aspx?sc_lang=en
The article includes potential e-text features, but raises a concern
that an exclusive adoption of e-textbooks in K-12 might not meet the
needs of all learners.

Finley, T. (2015, December 15). 22 powerful closure activities [Blog post]. https://www.edutopia.org/blog/22-powerful-closure-activities-todd-finley

Milkova, S. (n.d.). *Strategies for effective lesson planning*.
Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning
and Teaching.
http://crlt.umich.edu/sites/default/files/resource_files/GSI_Guidebook/GSI_Guidebook_37-39.pdf

Project Tomorrow (2009, March 24). *Selected national findings: Speak Up 2008 for students, teachers, parents and administrators.*
https://tomorrow.org/speakup/pdfs/SU08_findings_final_mar24.pdf

Ray, K. (2020, November 19). What research shows about screen time for students. https://www.techlearning.com/news/what-research-shows-about-screen-time-for-students

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See related topics: Math Manipulatives and Standardized Test Preparation.