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Technology Integration:
Multimedia in Projects: Copyright, Fair Use, Plagiarism

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Technology Integration is a four part series on essential questions, technology integration resources, web page design, and multimedia in projects.  Sections contain relevant opening essays and resources.

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Copyright and Fair Use

 

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As projects often contain multimedia elements captured from the Internet, you and your students should learn about copyright issues related to intellectual property and multimedia law.  In particular, teachers and students should know the four characteristics to determine copyright infringement: the purpose and character of use (commercial or non profit educational), the nature of the copyrighted work, the amount of the work that can be used in relation to its whole, and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the work (Chiles, Riddle, & Rich, 2003, p. 37).

What is considered fair-use of multimedia in projects?

There are limitations on time and the amount of copyrighted material that can be incorporated into educational multimedia projects, used without permission.  Developers should credit all sources and consult the Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia (1996).  In brief, this document indicates the following (section 4.2):

In November 2008, the American University Center for Media and Social Impact released The Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Media Literacy Education, which is recommended reading.  The Center also posted an associated short video about the development of this guide and what it means for teachers and students using media in their work.  The National Council of Teachers of English was among its signatories.  "This guide identifies five principles that represent the media literacy education community’s current consensus about acceptable practices for the fair use of copyrighted materials, wherever and however it occurs: in K–12 education, in higher education, in nonprofit organizations that offer programs for children and youth, and in adult education" (p. 1).  Those principles do not center around the limits of fair use, but on how the rights should apply in five sets of current practices for all forms of media: (1) employing copyrighted material in media literacy lessons, (2) employing copyrighted material in preparing curriculum materials, (3) sharing media literacy curriculum materials, (4) student use of copyrighted materials in their own academic and creative work, and (5) developing audiences for student work.  The guide also addresses common myths about fair use.

How can I minimize problems with copyright when using multimedia projects for teaching and learning?

Pirate with Stolen GoodsSeeking permission to use copyrighted works for multimedia projects can be time consuming and permission might not always be granted.  Creative Commons (http://creativecommons.org/) has been developed to minimize concerns.  This non-profit site was "built within current copyright law, that allows you to share your creations with others and use music, movies, images, and text online that's been marked with a Creative Commons license" (Learn More about Creative Commons section).  Four types of licenses are available to designate the level at which material can be used without seeking permission from the copyright holder: attribution, non-commercial, no derivative works, and share alike.  These licenses are particularly relevant for content that you develop and post on the Internet. They help you to retain copyright while sharing your work "with some rights reserved."  Creative Commons has an icon that you would post with your content.

When users search for media using the Creative Commons Search tools, they will automatically know the terms of use.  When searching you have an option to find works that you can use for commercial use and/or adapt, modify, or build-upon.  This latter is the key for appropriate use of the media in projects for teaching and learning.  Educators will also benefit from the database of lessons, course packets, textbooks, and other research material.  Wesley Fryer discusses the importance of Creative Commons in K-12 Education.

 

Creative Commons Infographic

 

Copyright and Fair Use Resources

 

American Library Association's Copyright Advisory Network: http://www.librarycopyright.net/ has numerous copyright resources, plus a blog where educators can post their questions about copyright issues and get replies.

American University: Center for Media & Social Impact: http://cmsimpact.org/  "The Center for Media & Social Impact at American University is an innovation incubator and research center that creates, studies, and showcases media for social impact" (About Us section).  There are multiple fair use resources.

Copyright Alliance: http://www.copyrightalliance.org/ "is dedicated to advocating policies that promote and preserve the value of copyright and to protecting the rights of creators and innovators" (About section).  You'll find discussion of issues, resources for creators of all types of media, blogs, and more.

Common Sense Media: K-12 Digital Literacy & Citizenship Curriculum: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/educators/digital-citizenship  Common Sense Media has posted free materials "designed to empower students to think critically, behave safely, and participate responsibly in our digital world." Use the Scope and Sequence to "find the right resources for your classroom.  The grade-differentiated units spiral to address a cross-curricular approach" (Scope and Sequence section).  Videos to accompany lessons are provided, which can also be used alone to jumpstart discussion.  For example, see the Copyright and Fair Use Animation. Resources are aligned to Common Core standards.

Copyright from the United States Copyright Office http://www.copyright.gov/ Learn copyright basics, read about the laws, register a work and record a document, search copyright records, and get publications, forms, and fact sheets.

Copyright and Fair Use from Stanford University: http://fairuse.Stanford.edu

Copyright and Fair Use in the Classroom, on the Internet, and the World Wide Web from the University of Maryland University College: http://www.umuc.edu/library/copy.html The document contains an introduction to copyright and fair use, including fair use guidelines for educational multimedia.  There is also a sample letter for requesting permission to use copyrighted materials.

Copyright.com from the Copyright Clearance Center: http://www.copyright.com/ccc/home.do See copyright for academia. This site contains extensive resources for copyright issues and organizations concerned with copyright.  There are guidelines for creating a copyright compliance policy, registering a copyright, rights management information, and multimedia law.

Copyright Website: http://www.benedict.com/  This website addresses the following:

Copyright Kids!: http://www.copyrightkids.org/ is brought to you by the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. The goals of this Web site are to provide: "an educational tool to define, explain, and apply copyright issues in language understandable to Middle School students; an educational resource on copyright issues for teachers and parents of 5th - 8th graders who are engaged in a creative process; instructions about how to protect your own creations by registering them with the U.S. Copyright Office in the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C."

Copyright with Cyberbee: http://www.cyberbee.com/copyrt.html  Cyberbee.com has resources and lesson ideas for teachers on this topic.  There is also an interactive question and answer activity suitable for upper elementary through high school students to learn the basics about copyright (http://www.cyberbee.com/cb_copyright.swf).

Crash Course in Copyright from the University of Texas: http://copyright.lib.utexas.edu/ If you want to use images, videos, words, songs, designs, layouts, illustrations, diagrams, charts, and graphs or create things with them, then you should learn the copyright basics using this resource.

Creative Commons: http://creativecommons.org/ Legally share your work with others.  Four types of licenses are available to designate the level at which material can be used without seeking permission from the copyright holder: attribution, non-commercial, no derivative works, and share alike.  [Note: For more information, read Wes Fryer's article Creative Commons in K-12 Education and view the Copyright and Creative Commons Video explained by Common Craft.

Digital Citizenship: Using Technology Appropriately: http://www.digitalcitizenship.net/ The site notes nine themes of digital citizenship and provides resources and publications on this theme.

Educator's Guide to Fair Use and Copyright: http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr280.shtml  This is a five-part series posted at Education World.

Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia from the Congress of the United States (1996): http://copyright.lib.utexas.edu/ccmcguid.html

Fair Use Evaluator: http://librarycopyright.net/resources/fairuse/ is an interactive tool from the Copyright Advisory Network of the American Library Association, Information Technology Policy.  It will help you decide what is and is not fair use under the U.S. Copyright Code.  You can also get a time-stamped hard or electronic copy of your fair use evaluation, using information you had provided.  Also see the related Exceptions for Instructors in U.S. Copyright Code eTool: http://librarycopyright.net/resources/exemptions/ to help determine if your intended use will meet conditions for using copyrighted material without the need to seek permission of the copyright holder.  You can also get a pdf summary.

Hall Davidson's Copyright Resources: http://www.halldavidson.net/downloads.html  Numerous resources of value to educators are included: copyright quizzes/answers, charts, articles, and handouts for classroom planning in multimedia and video.

New Media Rights: Copyright FAQ: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLD1071E5E4FD66B73&feature=plcp includes a series of short YouTube videos that answer common questions on copyright and the public domain.  Scripts were written by "licensed California attorneys and read by law students. This should not be considered legal advice since the facts of your specific situation can't be known" (Website disclaimer).

Podcasting Legal Guide: Rules for the Revolution: http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Welcome_To_The_Podcasting_Legal_Guide This guide, based on U.S. law, deals with copyright and fair use in relation to the development and distribution of podcasts, and trademark issues.   It includes a section relevant for librarians and teachers.

Questions & Answers on Copyright for the Campus Community (2006): http://www.nacs.org/toolsresources/cmip/copyright/questions.aspx from the Software & Information Industry Association, Association of American Publishers, Association of American University Presses, National Association of College Stores, and the Copyright Clearance Center. This guidebook in question and answer format discusses the Copyright Act: copying print and digital works, getting permissions to copy, how to get electronic versions from publishers for students with disabilities including a form for requesting the e-version, guidelines for making classroom copies, and a form for seeking permission to use copyright materials.

Taking the Mystery out of Copyright: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/copyrightmystery/ from the Library of Congress is an interactive site for students and educators to learn about copyright.  The Library of Congress also has resources for Copyright and Primary Resources: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/usingprimarysources/copyright.html

Teaching Copyright: http://www.teachingcopyright.org/ The Electronic Frontier Foundation provides curriculum "designed to give teachers a comprehensive set of tools to educate students about copyright while incorporating activities that exercise a variety of learning skills. Lesson topics include: the history of copyright law; the relationship between copyright and innovation; fair use and its relationship to remix culture; peer-to-peer file sharing; and the interests of the stakeholders that ultimately affect how copyright is interpreted by copyright owners, consumers, courts, lawmakers, and technology innovators.  The lesson plan concludes with a mock trial that tests the students' understanding of copyright and its limitations and encourages them to consider the positions of each party involved" (Overview section).

 

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After reviewing the copyright resources above, test your knowledge of copyright law as it applies to educational purposes.  Take the Fair Use and Copyright Quiz posted by California State University-Sacramento. The 21 multiple-choice questions are relevant for K-12 educators and their learners.  Students might also take The Copyright Challenge quiz from copyrightkids.org.

 

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Plagiarism

Plagiarism and stealing online contentLearn to write better.  Resources below define plagiarism, help you prevent plagiarism, and offer plagiarism detection services.

What is plagiarism?

The Internet has made it easy for students to cut a paste content from others into their work, particularly in their written papers.  Many students are not even aware of what constitutes plagiarism.  Simply stated, "In an instructional setting, plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source" (Council on Writing Program Administrators, 2003).

How can you deter plagiarism?

The best way to deter plagiarism is to prevent its occurrence in the first place by teaching students about plagiarism, copyright and fair use, and how to paraphrase.  Readers might be interested in the article Plagiarism: Prevention is the Name of the Game by Patricia Deubel (2005), which appeared in English Leadership Quarterly and is available at this site.  ReadWriteThink.org also has an excellent 3-part lesson to use with students, Exploring Plagiarism, Copyright, and Paraphrasing.  The premise is that students need time to practice and must see examples of correct paraphrasing and citation methodology.

Unfortunately, however, the burden of proof for suspected plagiarism lies with the educator.  Arthur Sterngold (2004) indicates that conventional lecture-based teaching practices invite cyber-cheating.  Deterring plagiarism calls for a paradigm shift toward more learner-centered teaching approaches, which incorporate "more hands-on, active, and collaborative learning methods" (p. 21).  While no methods are foolproof, Sterngold provides the following strategies for preventing plagiarism in research papers:

Sterngold's strategies "allow instructors to treat most instances of plagiarism as fixable errors rather than fatal violations of academic policies" (p. 18).  They are equally applicable for multimedia projects, which are developed over time and for which instructors can provide learner feedback in stages.

What plagiarism detection services are available?

Glatt Plagiarism Services: http://www.plagiarism.com

Plagiarisma.net: http://plagiarisma.net/

Turnitin.com: http://www.turnitin.com/ is a product to help detect plagiarism, but more importantly to prevent it in the first place.  For detecting plagiarism, the service relies on comparing the submitted document to documents found on the Internet, published works found in databases as ProQuest and the Gutenburg collection of literary classics, and to the millions of papers submitted to the service since 1996.  Examine the research resources for students and teachers.  You will find plagiarism and key research terms defined, help to identify different types of plagiarism, help with citations, and suggestions for developing good research and writing skills.  Teachers will appreciate the printable handouts.

Unplag.com: https://unplag.com/ Checks text files against open web resources using Bing and Yahoo.  You can exclude quotes and references prior to the plagiarism check.  Pricing options are available for individual and corporate clients.

WriteCheck: http://en.writecheck.com/ is a plagiarism checker and grammar checker.  Professional tutoring by Pearson Tutoring Services is available.  Pricing is based on the number of papers submitted.

Plagiarism Resources

 

Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01 offers advice in how to avoid plagiarism in your work.  Writing resources are extensive, including the writing process itself, essay genres, developing annotated bibliographies, and APA and MLA citation methodologies.  There is a complete section also devoted to learners in grades 7-12: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/677/01/

Plagiarism.org: http://www.plagiarism.org/ contains resources for preventing plagiarism and guidelines for correctly citing information.  There is also a Plagiarism in the Digital Age webinar series for higher education and high schools.

The Plagiarism Resource Site: http://plagiarism.phys.virginia.edu/ "The goal of this web site is to help reduce the impact of plagiarism on education and educational institutions. At present, it distributes free software to detect plagiarism and provides links to other resources. This site’s sole author is Lou Bloomfield, Professor of Physics, University of Virginia."

Plagiarism Today: http://www.plagiarismtoday.com/ was created by a victim of plagiarism who decided to fight back.  Thus, the site is devoted to webmasters and copyright holders and contains resources for detecting plagiarism, content theft on the Web, learning about legal issues, copyright, contacting the plagiarist, plagiarism help, a blog for discussion, and more.

Prentice Hall Companion Website: Understanding Plagiarism: Available at http://seaportmedia.coastline.edu/objects/12300/Plagiarism%20Prentice%20Hall%20Companion%20Website.pdf.  This is a text-only comprehensive tutorial appropriate for high school and post-secondary learners.

VAIL (Virtual Academic Integrity Laboratory) Tutor: http://www.umuc.edu/distance/odell/cip/vail/home.html is a high end multimedia tutorial with graphics, animation, and music, provided by the Center for Intellectual Property at the University of Maryland University College.  Faculty and administrators learn to detect plagiarism, provide strategies for reducing cheating, and promote academic integrity.  Students learn how to avoid plagiarism.

What is Plagiarism? from Georgetown University: http://honorcouncil.georgetown.edu/whatisplagiarism  Plagiarism is defined and issues that students commonly raise are discussed, such as paraphrasing, getting help from others, not having time to do it right, denial of plagiarism, my friends get stuff from the Internet.  Information on acknowledging the work of others and examples of plagiarism are provided.

You Quote It, You Note It!: http://library.acadiau.ca/sites/default/files/library/tutorials/plagiarism/ is a very engaging, multimedia, interactive plagiarism tutorial brought to you by Vaughn Memorial Library at Acadia University in Canada.  In about ten minutes, middle school to post secondary learners will learn how to avoid plagiarism and pick up some research tips, too.

Writing Tutorial Services at Indiana University (Bloomington): http://www.indiana.edu/%7Ewts/pamphlets/plagiarism.shtml Plagiarism: What it is and how to recognize it and avoid it.

 

How much you know about plagiarism?

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Aiming for Integrity Quiz: How Well Do You Know Plagiarism from Turnitin.com covers the different types of plagiarism.

The Plagiarism Test from the College of Education at Indiana University Bloomington checks to see if you can recognize plagiarism in writing.

 

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References

Center for Media and Social Impact (2008, November). The code of best practices in fair use for media literacy education.  Retrieved from http://cmsimpact.org/code/code-best-practices-fair-use-media-literacy-education/ 

Chiles, L., Riddle, N., & Rich, L. (2003, October). Are you breaking the law? Copyright guidelines for video streaming and digital video in the classroom. T.H.E. Journal, 31(3), 36-39.

Council on Writing Program Administrators (2003). Defining and avoiding plagiarism: The WPA statement on best practices. Retrieved from http://www.wpacouncil.org/node/9

Deubel, P. (2005). Plagiarism: Prevention is the name of the game. English Leadership Quarterly, 28(1), 6-11.  [Also available at this site. Click on the title.]

Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia (1996). Retrieved from http://depts.washington.edu/uwcopy/Using_Copyright/Guidelines/Fair.php

Sterngold, A. (2004, May/June). Confronting plagiarism: How conventional teaching invites cyber-cheating. Change, 36(3), 16-21.

 

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Binoculars GifSee other Technology Integration pages:

Part 4: Multimedia in Projects: Page  1  |   2   |  3  | 

Part 1: Essential Questions  |  Part 2: Technology Integration Resources  |   Part 3: Web Page Design