Our collection of Math Resources has multiple pages designed for teaching within specific grade bands. You'll also find valuable collections of support and enrichment resources that will benefit all learners.
Math Resources (Page 1): Elementary and Middle Levels: Basic Mathematics and Skills Development, plus apps for mobile devices
Math Resources (Page 2): Middle, Secondary, Post-Secondary Subject Specific Resources, including apps for mobile devices: Algebra and Pre-Algebra, Geometry, Statistics, Probability, Trigonometry, Precalculus and Calculus
Math Resources (Page 3): K-12 Supplementary Collections: Miscellaneous Math Collections; Practical Applications--Math in Careers, Daily Life, and Across the Curriculum; and Problem Solving
Math Resources (Page 4): Enrichment and Extra Help: Math Contests, Competitions, Challenges, and Camps; Study Skills and Homework Help, plus tips for parent involvement; and Dictionaries, Glossaries, Reference Sheets, and Math Encyclopedias
Math Resources (Page 5):
Math Resources (Page 6): Resources for Podcasts and Vodcasts and for Whiteboards, including tips on using whiteboards
Are you wondering how well lessons align to the Common Core Math Standards?
You might consider using EQuIP rubrics. Per the Achieve.org website: "EQuIP (Educators Evaluating the Quality of Instructional Products) is an initiative of the American Diploma Project (ADP) Network designed to identify high-quality materials aligned to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)." Training materials, exemplars, videos, and other materials are available to assist with this endeavor. The rubrics help you to evaluate:
Note: The rubric is not intended for evaluating a single task or activity. See the EQuIP Rubric: Mathematics.
EngageNY includes a Tri-State Quality Review Rubric for Lessons & Units for Mathematics, which can be used to rate a lesson or unit on four levels: alignment to the rigor of the CCSS, key areas of focus in the CCSS, instructional supports, and assessment.
Need Common Core math lesson planning templates?
CORE provides free CCSS Lesson Planning/Design Templates.
Algebrahelp.com is a collection of lessons, calculators, and worksheets for students and teachers of algebra.
BetterLesson includes lesson plans (even complete units and courses), classroom materials, and instructional resources, which have been submitted by teachers. This is a free resource--just get started by signing up. Educators will also appreciate the lessons aligned to the Common Core standards for math.
Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching (CIMT) was established in 1986 at the University of Exeter in the UK and is now housed at the University of Plymouth. Content is focused on research and curriculum development for mathematics teaching and learning. K-12 educators will be particularly interested in the CIMT curriculum resources, such as "pupil texts, lesson plans, classroom resources, assessment materials and on-line interactive resources." Don't miss the project, The Mathematics Enhancement Programme, which offers school curriculum and teaching material (posted online) for mathematics for all grade levels with lesson plans, copymasters, and tests. Read articles from the International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning.
Common Core Sheets is a collection of K-8 worksheets in math, social studies, science, language arts, writing, and spelling. Worksheets for math can be selected by grade level and then by standard.
COUNTDOWN is a multimedia initiative for math instruction developed by Loyola University-Chicago. The site contains a collection of instructional math videos for K-12 content and printable activity sheets which are all categorized by NCTM standards and fully indexed. The video clips are taken from the weekly interactive television show, COUNTDOWN, which airs in Chicago and invites students to watch and call in to help solve math problems. This site offers assistance for students, method and lesson plan ideas for graduate students, reinforcement of basic concepts for teachers to supplement the in-class work, and help to parents hoping to help their child understand math. QuickTime player (free) is needed. The content of the site is free.
HOT for CCSS Implementation: CPALMS (Collaborate, Plan, Align, Learn, Motivate, Share) initiative provides instructional resources, which are vetted by peers and experts, and professional development for implementation of the Common Core Standards. You find curriculum, activity, and general resources that include an extensive collection of lesson plans, worksheets, virtual manipulatives, problem-solving tasks, data sets, web quests, projects, videos, educational games, formative assessments, teaching ideas, units, lesson study, and more. The site received funding from the Florida Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and FOR-STEM.
Discovery Education Lesson Plan Library has hundreds of free lesson plans in multiple content areas written by teachers for teachers. Select your subject and grade band.
EdHelper.com contains hundreds of lessons, worksheets, and WebQuests for K-12 mathematics. Lessons include addition, algebra, applied math, arithmetic, calculators, calculus, discrete math, division, fractions, functions, games, geometry, graphing, measurement, money, numbers, operations, precalculus, probability, statistics, stories, and trigonometry. Materials, including test prep questions, are available by grade level. EdHelper worksheets use different numbers and solutions each time.
Education.com has free worksheets and activities for math (and other content areas) for grades preK-5, middle school, and high school. Topics range from preschool counting all the way up to more complex high school puzzles.
Education World's Math Worksheet Library contains printable math lessons selected from the resources of Teacher Created Materials. The lessons are arranged by grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). Answer keys are provided for lessons that require them.
Geometry: The Supplement is by Dan Meyer, a high school math teacher who also blogs about math. This site is an entire year's worth of supplementary lessons in Geometry complete with handouts, PowerPoint demonstrations, pdf files, and keynotes.
Google: Exploring Computational Thinking (CT) contains classroom-ready lessons, worksheets, and examples illustrating how educators can incorporate CT into the K-12 curriculum. You'll find everyday applications, too, such as pattern recognition, algorithm design, and other computational thinking skills. Content was developed by teachers in collaboration with Google software engineers; math addresses pre-algebra, algebra, geometry, and calculus. Additional features include a Getting Started Guide, web resources, and a discussion forum to connect with other CT educators. Readers might be particularly interested in the conceptual frameworks and how-to papers listed in web resources for incorporating CT into every classroom.
HaveFunTeaching.com includes free printable worksheets, activities, flash cards, songs, tools, and videos for grades K-5. There's also a blog. Common Core workbooks for K-5 are available for a fee.
Illuminations from the NCTM has been redesigned into four sections with activities, lessons, standards, and Web links. It has ready to use, online, interactive, multimedia math investigations presented in grade bands: preK-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12 and across all grades, which are based on Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Selected web resources (over 2400), Internet-based lesson plans, interactive math-lets, and video reflections on teaching enhance the learning process. Teachers can choose single day or multiple day lessons on geometric and algebraic concepts, data analysis and probability, number relationships and operations, problem solving, and more.
KidsLearningStation has math worksheets for preK and lower elementary grades. For example, the collection includes numbers and patterns for preschool, then comparison, measurement, money, skip counting, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, number bonds, tens and ones, graphing, time, odd/even numbers, and greater/less than.
K5Learning has free math worksheets for grades 1-6 on multiple topics, and math worksheets for preschool and kindergarten. K5Learning "is an online reading and math program for kids in kindergarten to grade 5."
Kuta Software has free worksheets for pre-algebra, algebra 1, geometry, and algebra 2. However, by purchasing the software teachers can generate their own worksheets and tests with multiple-choice and free-response questions from parameters they select.
Learn NC from the University of North Carolina School of Education contains K-12 lesson plans and learning materials with both text and multimedia in multiple content areas. There's also a series of best practices for professional development.
LearnZillion "offers a free and growing set of Math and English Language resources for grades 2-12 that have been developed by expert teachers directly from the Common Core State Standards" (About section). Free accounts are available for teachers and parents. The site was started at a public charter school in Washington, DC.
Math-Aids.Com is a free resource for anyone who wishes to use math worksheets to reinforce basic skills. Print an unlimited number of worksheets and answers to problems, which are randomly generated. You can choose several different types of math worksheets for each topic to cover various types of problems. There are over 80 different topics and over 1000 unique worksheets. Some of those topics are: "Addition, Algebra 1, Decimals, Division, Estimation, Exponents, Fact Family, Factors, Flash Cards, Fractions, Function Tables, Geometry, Graph Paper, Graphing, Greater Than Less Than, Hundreds Chart, In and Out Boxes, Integers, Kindergarten, Mean Mode Median & Range, Measurement, Mixed Problems, Money, Multiplication, Number Bonds, Number Lines, Order of Operations, Patterns, Percent, Place Value, Pre-Algebra, Probability, Properties, Pythagorean Theorem, Radicals, Ratios, Rounding, Significant Figures, Skip Counting, Subtraction, Telling Time, Venn Diagrams, Word Games and Word Problems."
MathActive lessons, as described at the web site, "are Flash animated math modules designed for grades K-12. Each module features content that touches a geometry performance objective from the Arizona Academic Standards for mathematics." Lessons were designed by educators using Backward Design; a teacher guide accompanies each. Several modules are narrated in English, Spanish and Navajo.
MathX.net has over 1,000 free worksheets organized in categories and sorted by difficulty: basic math operations, numbers, geometry, equations, inequalities, graphing, and linear equations. Exams are also available.
Math Fact Cafe provides generators for creating free math worksheets and access to pre-made worksheets. The site also includes flashcards, time, and money problems. The focus is for topics studied in grades K-5.
Math Is Fun from the UK addresses K-12 math in a fun learning environment. It has a mix of math concepts explained in easy language, plus puzzles, games and quizzes. Suitable for students, teachers and parents. Subjects covered include multiplication tables, long division, fractions, percentages, platonic solids, angles, triangles and basic algebra. It has printable worksheets to practice on, and answers can be printed separately for scoring. The illustrated math dictionary is well done.
Mathematics Lessons by C. Lanius at Rice University contains engaging, online interactive lessons for K-12 covering such topics as counting, fractions (also in Spanish), ratios, fractals, graphing, algebra, geometry, cartography, calculus, and more. The site offers lesson plans for teachers; it teaches the lessons to the students, combining reading and mathematics.
Math Archives, maintained by the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, is a comprehensive source on various topics in mathematics, software for teaching K-12, and teaching materials (including lesson plans) ranging from K-12 to college calculus. Materials also include contests and competitions at each level, and problem sets of the week or month. There is an extensive list of professional societies related to mathematics.
Math-Drills.com claims over 50 thousand free printable math worksheets. There are a variety of topics in basic arithmetic, base-10 blocks, algebra, fractions, measurement, geometry, statistics, number sense, money, word problems, and more.
Math Worksheet Center encourages a paid subscription to over 8000 K-12 printable worksheets. It's well organized by grade, topic, skills, and age of students. The site offers a limited number of free worksheets and over 130 free math teaching and learning articles, however. Membership includes all worksheets, lessons, answers, quizzes, and homework.
Math Worksheet Site will allow you to create printable math worksheets, either with or without answers, from your browser. These are suitable for elementary students learning basic arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division), measurement, telling time, least common multiples, reducing fractions. Number lines and coordinate plane grids for graphing can be generated, and a 100 block chart (useful for introducing prime numbers).
Math Worksheets Go features free printable worksheets with answers for algebra, geometry, algebra 2, and trigonometry, many with additional web resources for math concepts.
Math Worksheets Land features preK-8 and high school worksheets with guided lessons that include the alignment of each to the Common Core standards. Worksheets are listed by topic and grade level. High school includes number & quantity, functions, algebra, geometry, and statistics & probability.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Lessons are among classroom resources. These are searchable by type, grade, and Common Core math standard.
Noetic Learning Math Worksheet Creator includes free drill and practice worksheets with randomly generated problems. Teachers can set criteria for problems displayed in number sense and place value, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, money, and fractions. The paid membership gives access to other topics in elementary math. The format for presenting problems with the worksheet creator is horizontal, so students may need to recopy problems to paper to line up numbers appropriately for completing calculations. Answers can be entered online and correct answers are displayed when students indicate they are done.
PBS Learning Media includes resources for preK-13+ math searchable by grade level and standards. Narrow a search with media type and subject.
Rational Number Project, funded by the National Science Foundation, "advocates teaching fractions using a model that emphasizes multiple representations and connections among different representations" (January 2010 information, para. 1). You'll find multiple lessons for teaching fractions for middle grades.
Science NetLinks includes lessons organized by Project 2061 benchmarks, which outlines what all students should know in science and mathematics by the end of grades 2, 5, 8 and 12. Focus is science, mathematics, and technology, and habits of mind. Numerous links to supporting websites are included. This is a not to miss site.
Share My Lesson includes K-12 teaching resources in multiple subjects created by teachers around the globe for teachers. Resources are divided into grade bands and for special populations. The site is free and also provides "an online community where teachers can collaborate with, encourage and inspire each other. Share My Lesson has a significant resource bank for Common Core State Standards, covering all aspects of the standards, from advice and guides to help with dedicated resources that support the standards" (About Us section). The site was developed by the American Federation of Teachers and TES Connect. Math subcategories include curriculum, games/puzzles, lesson plans, review/test prep, tests/assessments, worksheets/handouts. Searches can be narrowed to find what you need.
STatistics Education Web (STEW) provides online peer-reviewed lesson plans for K-12 math and science teachers who teach statistics concepts in their classrooms. These are organized by grade band and include statistical concepts being addressed. "The statistical concepts follow the recommendations of the Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) Report: A Pre-K-12 Curriculum Framework, Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, and NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (STEW description section).
SuperKids Math Worksheets--a free site to generate drill and practice worksheets with customization options provided (e.g., using negative integers and decimals, number of problems and parameters), including answers. Various topics include addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, rounding, averages, time, order of operations, percents, greater than/less than, factorials, exponents, and odd/even. There is a tool to determine if a number is prime.
Super Teacher Worksheets is a free site primarily for elementary grades with pre-constructed math worksheets with answers. Worksheets are organized by level of difficulty and topic. Other content areas are included.
Teachers’ Domain is an online library of free media resources from the best in public television. Resources correlate to state and national standards and include video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, documents, lesson plans for teachers, and student-oriented activities. You'll find media from NOVA, Frontline, Design Squad, American Experience, and other public broadcasting and content partners. The K-12 mathematics section features main concepts in elementary math: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, and data analysis and probability. Highly recommended.
Teaching preK-8 from Essential Learning Products has free lesson plans, teaching ideas, activities and articles in multiple areas. Many of the lesson plans under the category for mathematics are by Michael Naylor who is a professor of math education.
TeAch-nology has an extensive collection of over 2,000 free printable worksheets for math ranging in skills for grades 1-12. There is also an extensive collection of lesson plans for math at various grade levels.
TES based in England boasts "the largest network of teachers in the world." Teachers freely share lesson plans, games, worksheets, teaching ideas, and activities in numerous content areas. The site also includes teaching resources for learners with special educational needs. Mathematics resources are available at the pre-school, primary and secondary levels.
Utah Education Network contains an extensive set of core lesson plans in elementary and secondary mathematics, and other content areas, in their K-12 education section. These are of high quality.
Van de Walle Professional Mathematics Series Blackline Masters for the Teaching Student Centered Mathematics texts for grades K-3, 3-5, and 5-8 are freely available online related to topics covered at those levels. These are great for worksheets.
Virginia Department of Education has posted sample lesson plans and activities for elementary, middle and high school math. A plus is the additional instructional videos for teachers to assist with implementation of math standards.
Worksheet Library has several thousand printable K-8 worksheets in PDF format for teachers, parents, and home-schooled students. While there are hundreds offered for free, there is a nominal yearly fee for access to all. Answers are provided. Subjects addressed include mathematics, language arts, science, and social studies. Graphic organizers and time savers are a plus.
Every teacher needs a unit plan and daily lesson plan. Stiliana Milkova (n.d.) elaborated on Strategies for Effective Lesson Planning and included the following six steps for preparing a lesson plan:
At Step 4, consider giving learners options to demonstrate their understanding, such as by using math menus and choice boards.
Math teachers will appreciate the following books on choice by Laurie Westphal. Each includes reproducible menus, based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy, and multiple menu types:
Step 5 in the plan is sometimes missing in lessons when time is running short and the teacher has not anticipated how to adjust a lesson quickly, as needed, per Step 6. As every lesson should have closure, Todd Finley (2015) provided 22 Powerful Closure Activities for ending a lesson and creating a lasting impression of its content.
LearnBoost is free software for creating and managing lesson plans linked to Common Core standards. You can also add media. Per the site, this "lesson plan software helps you connect planning and instruction to grading and assessment."
PlanbookEdu is free lesson planning software that enables you to store your data online. The free version includes one planbook per year, which you can customize. For a nominal fee, you can get unlimited planbooks per year, printing and sharing features, and embed your lesson planbook in your own web site.
Universal Design for Learning Lesson Builder from the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). Learn more about universal design for learning, explore model lesson plans designed using UDL principles, then create, save and edit your own UDL lesson plans. You will create an account for this latter, but it is free.
Learn more about Universal Design for Learning.
CAST, the Center for Applied Special Technology, explains what universal design for learning (UDL) is all about. Materials and lessons designed according to UDL give students multiple means of representing concepts so that they have several ways to acquire information and knowledge, multiple means of engagement to tap into their interests, offer appropriate challenges and maintain or increase motivation, and multiple means of expressing what they have learned. CAST's UDL Lesson Builder will help you to do this: http://lessonbuilder.cast.org/
National Center on Universal Design for Learning is a program by CAST. "Founded in 2009, the National UDL Center supports the effective implementation of UDL by connecting stakeholders in the field and providing resources and information" on this topic (About the UDL Center section).
You'll find materials at each of these sites, which can be accessed online or as a download. Some downloads are free; others might have restrictions.
Agile Mind in collaboration with the Dana Center at The University of Texas in Austin developed programs for middle school math, Algebra I, Intensified Algebra I (for learners one to three grade levels behind in mathematics), Geometry, Algebra II, Precalculus, AP Calculus, and AP Statistics. Agile Mind and the Dana Center are also developers of The Mathematics Common Core Toolbox, a gallery of selected animations to help learners master mathematics noted in the aforementioned middle and high school courses.
Big Ideas Learning in collaboration with Houghton Mifflin Harcourt has produced a series of math books for middle school, aligned to the Common Core Standards. Big Ideas Math prepares students in the regular focus to take algebra 1 or integrated math 1 in grade 9. A compacted version for accelerated learners prepares them to take algebra 1 in grade 8. Of interest is that there is a student version of each book freely accessible online for home use, which includes "the entire Student Edition, Test Practice, Video Tutorials, Glossary with Audio, Progress Checks, Vocabulary Help, Manipulative Visual Aids and Spanish Chapter Reviews" (Parents section).
Bookshare.org is an online library of digital books for people with print disabilities (e.g., visual, physical, and learning). "Bookshare Members download books, textbooks and newspapers in a compressed, encrypted file. They then read the material using adaptive technology, typically software that reads the book aloud (text-to-speech) and/or displays the text of the book on a computer screen, or Braille access devices, such as refreshable Braille displays. Through an award from the U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), Bookshare offers free memberships to U.S. schools and qualifying U.S. students." (sec: How Bookshare Works) There are over 200 math textbooks listed, for example, many of which are from leading commercial publishers and open-source content developers.
ClassZone.com is the online resource to accompany McDougal-Littell textbooks. Math resources for middle and high school texts in your state include electronic tutors, review games, test practice and more. Interactive animations enhance lessons.
College Preparatory Mathematics offers curriculum for grades 6-12 and has a student, teacher, and parent resource center online. The student Skill Builders are particularly useful for extra problem sets with answers and additional explanations for topics in the following texts: Foundations for Algebra 1 & 2, Math 1 (algebra 1), Math 2 (geometry), Math 3 (algebra 2), Algebra Connections, Geometry Connections.
Common Core, Inc: Eureka Math for preK-12 "follows the focus and coherence of the Common Core State Standards and carefully sequences the mathematical progressions into expertly crafted instructional modules" (About section).
CPMP-Tools is a suite of both general purpose and custom software tools designed to support student investigation and problem solving in the 2nd edition Core-Plus Mathematics texts. Software for Courses 1, 2, and 3 has been completed. Software for Course 4 is still in development. This software is available as a free download and deals with algebra, geometry, statistics, and discrete math. It comes with a web-based help system for using the commands. While ideal for use with this text series, you can use the software without having the texts.
Education Place from Houghton Mifflin Company has textbook support materials with pre-K–6 resources for teachers, students, and families to support instruction in the classroom and at home.
Harcourt School Publishers: The Learning Site provides online activities and tutorials related to their K-5 texts. Harcourt is part of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) School Publishers. Note, one of HMH's products is Math in Focus for grades K-8, which is the U.S. version of Singapore Math. Educators will be particularly interested in the online activities of Think Math for K-5 organized by number, data analysis, geometry, algebra, probability, measurement, operations, time and money, and a glossary with audio support. According to the Education Development Center (n.d.), "Think Math! does not pit skill against problem solving. Rather, it builds computational fluency through plentiful practice in basic skills as students investigate new ideas and solve meaningful problems. Lessons provide glimpses of ideas to come, letting students build familiarity and develop conceptual understanding as they apply, sharpen, and maintain skills they already have" (Welcome to Think Math!, para. 3).
Investigations in Number, Data, and Space contains K-5 resources for educators to supplement this text. The text was developed at TERC and "is designed to help all children understand fundamental ideas of number and operations, geometry, data, measurement and early algebra" (TERC Welcome to Investigations section). TERC has additional resources. Ordering is via Pearson, linked from the TERC site.
McGraw-Hill Education Online Learning Center: Glencoe Mathematics contains self-check quizzes, chapter tests, standardized test prep questions, and vocabulary questions. Multiple-choice is included. Select your state, then textbook.
McGraw-Hill Wright Group Everyday Mathematics for preK-6 has online technology to accompany texts. For example, see the eToolkit Demo pack. Everyday Mathematics was developed by the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project.
Saxon Publisher's Online Activities include over 125 practice activities to help students master content presented in their K-12 math texts. As activities are clearly titled, these will benefit learners regardless of text used.
CK-12 Foundation is a "non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-content, web-based collaborative model termed the "FlexBook," CK-12 intends to pioneer the generation and distribution of high quality educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning." Teachers can search for texts aligned to Common Core standards and other state and standard sets, by subject, and by grade. You'll find math sections on grades 1-5, arithmetic, measurement, algebra, geometry, probability, statistics, trigonometry, analysis, and calculus. For example, the section for elementary math for grades 1-5 aligned to the Common Core standards contains interactive math practice problems, videos, video hints, and full step-by-step solutions, all free. Also see the CK-12 Foundation Dedicated Channel for videos on YouTube.
MIT OpenCourseware. See Calculus by Gilbert Strang, a 1991 text still in print from Wellesley-Cambridge Press. The book covers single variable and multivariable calculus in depth, and is rich with applications. There is also an online Instructor's Manual and a student Study Guide, all freely available for download on MIT's OpenCourseWare site.
The Orange Grove is Florida's Digital Repository, which contains a database of open-source textbooks. A few of those suitable for school mathematics include the Handbook of Essential Mathematics (2006), College Algebra (2009) and Elementary Calculus: An Infinitesimal Approach (2nd ed., 2007).
Open Culture boasts "the best free cultural & educational media on the web." In addition to online courses, language lessons, eBooks, audio books, movies, and cultural icons, there's an extensive list of free textbooks on the web, including for mathematics.
OpenStax CNX (formerly Connexions) is "a place to view and share educational material made of small knowledge chunks called modules that can be organized as courses, books, reports, etc. Anyone may view or contribute." You'll find multiple books for math.
SmartStudy includes a library of links to open-source textbooks in multiple subjects, including mathematics and a separate category for statistics.
Wikiversity invites teachers, students, and researchers to join their endeavors to create open education resources and collaborative learning communities. The project is devoted to learning resources, learning projects, and research for use at all levels and types of education from pre-school to university, professional development, and informal learning. Visit the Wikiversity Math Portal.
Let's listen to our digital natives. Students have a vision of their ideal online textbook.
More and more schools are now using online content to support their curricula. In selected findings from a national survey conducted by Project Tomorrow, titled Speak Up 2008 for Students, Teachers, Parents and Administrators, students in grades 6–12 provided their views on their ultimate digital textbook. Here's a sampling of the kinds of electronic features and functionality that they would like to use:
This ultimate digital textbook would "mimic the way they are approaching learning in general, with heavy emphasis on communications, collaboration, creating content and overall taking control of the learning process themselves" (p. 7).
Finley, T. (2015, December 15). 22 powerful closure activities [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/22-powerful-closure-activities-todd-finley
Milkova, S. (n.d.). Strategies for effective lesson planning. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning and Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.crlt.umich.edu/gsis/p2_5
Project Tomorrow (2009, March 24). Selected national findings: Speak Up 2008 for students, teachers, parents and administrators. Retrieved from http://www.tomorrow.org/speakup/pdfs/SU08_findings_final_mar24.pdf