# Standardized Test Preparation and Tips for Success

## Strand Resources: Mathematical Processes Standard

CT4ME has identified resources related to each benchmark of the Ohio Mathematics Academic Content Standards that students should have mastered by the end of the grades 8-10 program.

Mathematical Processes are embedded in OGT questions.  "Throughout the five content standards, students will use mathematical processes, including reasoning, communication and representation skills, and appropriate technology within problem-solving situations" (Ohio Mathematics Academic Content Standards, 2001, p. 2).

Students should be able to review on their own using these resources.  If you are not an Ohio educator, these resources can still benefit your test prep efforts, as benchmarks in other states are similarly stated.

Other strand resources:

Number, Number Sense, and Operations ]   [ Measurement ]   [ Geometry and Spatial Sense ]   [ Patterns, Functions, and Algebra ]   [ Data Analysis and Probability ]   [ Mathematical Processes ]

### Benchmarks in Mathematical Processes

There are eight standards for mathematical practice within the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Mathematics (2010):

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

The Ohio Department of Education (ODE Mathematics Crosswalk, 2010) compared its benchmarks for this strand for grade band 8-10 to the mathematical practices within the CCSS for Mathematics.  These are shown below each benchmark A-H in the following list.  The ODE Mathematics Crosswalk showed no comparison for benchmarks A and B, however.  CT4ME.net suggested those for benchmarks A and B.

A.  Formulate a problem or mathematical model in response to a specific need or situation, determine information required to solve the problem, choose method for obtaining this information, and set limits for acceptable solution.

CCSS Practices: Model with mathematics; Use appropriate tools strategically; and Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

B.  Apply mathematical knowledge and skills routinely in other content areas and practical situations.

CCSS Practices: Model with mathematics; and Use appropriate tools strategically.

C.  Recognize and use connections between equivalent representations and related procedures for a mathematical concept; e.g., zero of a function and the x-intercept of the graph of the function, apply proportional thinking when measuring, describing functions, and comparing probabilities.

CCSS Practice: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

D.  Apply reasoning processes and skills to construct logical verifications or counter-examples to test conjectures and to justify and defend algorithms and solutions.

CCSS Practice: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

E.  Use a variety of mathematical representations flexibly and appropriately to organize, record and communicate mathematical ideas.

CCSS Practice: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

F.  Use precise mathematical language and notations to represent problem situations and mathematical ideas.

CCSS Practices: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others, and Attend to precision.

G.  Write clearly and coherently about mathematical thinking and ideas.

CCSS Practices: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others, and Attend to precision.

H.  Locate and interpret mathematical information accurately, and communicate ideas, processes and solutions in a complete and easily understood manner.

CCSS Practice: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

### Mathematical Processes Resources

MATHmodels.org has contests and problems on math modeling for high school and undergraduate learners. “Mathmodels is COMAP’s new modeling forum. On this site, students and faculty will find a wide range of interesting contemporary modeling problems. Teachers can assign problems. Students can choose to work on problems based on math topic and application area” (About MATHmodels section).

What's the Problem? --Reality Math for the Ohio Graduation Test is an intervention resource project funded by eTech|Ohio and produced by Ohio University students at the WOUB Center for Public Media.  This free series of eight 10-12 minute videos focuses on the uses of mathematics in the real world through parodies of different television reality shows "and highlights the common mathematical mistakes that students make on tests.  Each episode targets at least one of the five main benchmarks for Ohio Math Standards. The student engages in activities that present realistic math problems along with a review of the information that will help students solve the problems."  CT4ME is featured among the Teacher's Resources for these episodes.  Also see the complete teacher guide.  Note: As math standards are identified, learners in all states can benefit.

Are you ready for the test?

Complete:  Mathematical Reasoning California's High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE) released questions.  These are posted at HSTutorials.net and are from the 2008 test.  Extra tutorials and resources are available, if you need help.

#### References

*Note July 12, 2013: Per the ODE website for mathematics: "The State Board of Education has adopted the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics as part of Ohio's suite of Ohio's New Learning Standards for academic learning. The Kindergarten - Grade 12 standards will be used fully in Ohio classrooms by 2014-2015, when assessments that align to the standards are in place."  The academic content standards for mathematics are now available at http://education.ohio.gov/Topics/Ohios-Learning-Standards/Mathematics

See The Plain Dealer news posted at Cleveland.com on June 4, 2014 for how the OGT is being phased out: Ohio students must now pass Common Core exams or other tests to graduate, state legislature decides.  "For new freshmen starting high school this fall [2014], seven exams will take the OGT's place" (para. 1).  Current high school students must still pass the five parts of the OGT to graduate.

See other strand resources:

Number, Number Sense, and Operations ]   [ Measurement ]   [ Geometry and Spatial Sense ]   [ Patterns, Functions, and Algebra ]   [ Data Analysis and Probability ]   [ Mathematical Processes ]

See related pages: [ Standardized Test Preparation and Tips for Success (first  page)]  [ OGT Introduction ]