Are you confused by terms that educators use? The ASCD Lexicon of Learning might be what you need.
Don't Miss Out this School Year on Passing the OGT or your state math test!
Educators will appreciate our test prep resources for the Ohio Graduation Test in Mathematics.
Help your students to review concepts and practice questions correlated to grades 8-10 mathematics benchmarks. Math educators and their students in any state will benefit from these resources for your test prep efforts, as benchmarks in other states are similarly stated.
This page includes:
How to Use this Resource with Six Steps to Success on the OGT in Math and access to our test prep booklets
Or, you may link immediately to Strand Resources:
The Ohio Department of Education (2011) developed A Guide to the Ohio Graduation Tests for Students and Families in which each of the exams learners must pass to graduate are described. The Ohio Graduation Mathematics Achievement Test has 38 questions of which 32 are multiple-choice (4 responses), five are short-answer, and one is extended-response. Each mathematics item assesses concepts and skills related to one of the five major content standards of mathematics: Number, Number Sense and Operations; Measurement; Geometry and Spatial Sense; Patterns, Functions and Algebra; and Data Analysis and Probability. Mathematical Processes standards (e.g., problem-solving, reasoning, communication, and representation skills) are addressed within some test questions, not as a separate category. Calculators are provided to learners taking the math exam (p. 6).
Readers should note that Ohio administered the Ohio Graduation Tests (OGT) for the first time in spring 2003 in mathematics and reading. Prior to this new exam, Ohio administered the 9th grade proficiency tests. Ohio considers the OGT to be a measure of 10th grade standards (Gayler, Chudowsky, Kober, & Hamilton, 2003, p. 120). The graduating class of 2007 was the first to have diplomas withheld for failure to pass all five tests of the OGT (ODE, 2011, p. 1).
CT4ME has identified resources related to each benchmark of the Ohio Mathematics Academic Content Standards that students should have mastered by the end of the grades 8-10 program. Students should be able to review on their own using the resources. For each benchmark related to the five major areas tested, you will find Web resources by strand for reviewing the concept and practice problems. Additional resources for meeting the Mathematical Processes standard are also provided.
You will also find links to online videos embedded within this resource. The selected videos were posted by classroom teachers and professors who explain concepts and provide examples for problem solving. Teachers, parents, and students should note that CT4ME has reviewed all of those for suitability and appropriateness for classroom use that are linked from this site. Teachers, if you are concerned about your students using YouTube videos where they are found, ViewPure.com provides a "Purify" button to add to your "favorites" toolbar that will simplify YouTube videos by removing the ads and comments that might come with your selection--you see only the video simply by clicking on the button.
HOT ITEMS! Each content strand also has a pdf test prep booklet with the resources CT4ME has identified for review of each benchmark. Booklets are designed to be used with links provided at CT4ME.
Students can print the entire booklet, or just those pages for benchmarks they need to work on. They can write their notes in the booklet next to each resource they used in their review. As they review each benchmark, they complete a K-W-L chart answering the questions: What do you already know about that benchmark? What do you still want to know? What did you learn? After using the resources provided for each benchmark, they reflect on their understanding and the questions they had and decide how they will find answers to any remaining questions. They rate their overall belief about their level of mastery: still no or very little understanding (N), some to a great deal of progress (P), I’ve got it!--mastery (M). Each booklet contains a page for students to add additional resources they used for test prep.
The file size for each booklet is approximately 200 KB.
If needed, download Adobe Acrobat Reader, free software for viewing and printing PDF files.
Keep in mind that posting standards and benchmarks in your classroom and just reading them does not mean that students understand what mastery means. For them to take responsibility, they must be able to self-assess and self-adjust their learning from standards that are broken down into meaningful components. This is why students should use these booklets to accompany their test prep efforts.
This resource will be of most value to your students if they have clear knowledge of which benchmarks they have not yet mastered. Post standards and benchmarks for mastery in your classroom and provide each student with a copy from which they can monitor their progress.
A diagnostic tool, such as Pro-Core (formerly Pro-Ohio), or a formative assessment tool (screening, progress, and diagnostic) will help educators identify specific areas of weakness that students might have, and will also help educators to tailor their classroom instruction to meet the needs of students. The Northwest Evaluation Association's Measures of Academic Progress (Common Core MAP) can also be used. These are Common Core-aligned assessments that provide information about student achievement and growth.
While a diagnostic test with item analyses reveals weaknesses in concepts and content related to strands tested, teachers will still need to delve deeper into an analysis of why students missed certain questions. At a second level, student literacy skills might have played a role in not answering a question correctly. More on this below.
Benchmarking tests should be given periodically, perhaps every nine weeks, to monitor progress in mastering objectives. Such tests might be developed by districts.
Use the strand resources linked from this page, which correspond to weaknesses identified on your diagnostic test, or to generally review for the OGT. Students should use CT4ME's Strand Test Prep Booklets to record their progress and reflections on the resources provided.
As many students rely on their teacher to provide all the techniques for completing math assignments, you might provide students with tips for Reading a Math Textbook, suggested by Cynthia Arem of Pima Community College:
Steven Diaz (2009) also has posted an illustrated slideshow with his additional tips for reading a math textbook.
Review problem solving strategies. Provide students with problems that use those strategies, which generally fall into the following categories:
|Problem Solving Strategies|
|Compute or simplify||Use a formula||Make a model|
|Make a table, list, or chart||Guess, check, and revise||Determine if problem requires a single-step or multiple-steps to solve|
|Solve a simpler case or work backwards||Look for a pattern||Write an equation|
|Eliminate possible solutions and/or extra information||Draw a picture or diagram||Use logical reasoning|
Emphasize that often there is more than one way to solve a problem. Examine the practice problems at Port Angeles (WA). All of the problems at this site, which are separated into strands and strategies, are designed to help students learn to write in mathematics, which is an essential skill for the short answer and extended response questions on the OGT:
Writing helps students to make sense of mathematics and helps them to identify what they know or don't know. As students tackle problems, stress George Polya's (author of "How to Solve It") problem solving steps: The four steps are:
Visual students might then appreciate the How to Solve It Mind Map posted at GoGeometry.com. It is interactive illustrating Polya's steps with key questions to consider at each stage in problem solving.
If students do not know the meaning of words within test items, they cannot complete the problems successfully. Encourage students to use correct mathematical vocabulary in discussion and in their writing. Be sure students understand key action words typical of short answer and extended response questions, such as determine, identify, compare, contrast, explain, analyze, describe. Such words are not typical of everyday speech.
Also note specialized math terminology used within the questions posed. Ask students to define these in their own words. You might be amazed at how many students have difficulty with the key action words and math vocabulary.
An analysis of the requisite language needed to complete a problem is at the root of student performance. As an example, when working with word problems involving units of measure, remind learners to look for any mix of those. When solving problems, a key source of errors is when correct units of measure are not used.
Next, learners should review techniques for completing multiple choice, short-answer and extended response questions, as the OGT math exam contains these three types. They need to know about the mechanics of test taking, such as distracters, adhering to time limits, working with bubble sheets or online testing formats, reading and following test directions, and using deductive thinking to eliminate incorrect answers.
For multiple choice questions, the ODE (2011) recommended that learners read the entire question before attempting to answer it, try to answer the question without looking at the choices first, and not to keep changing an answer because usually learners' first choice is the right one, unless they did not read the question correctly. Beyond reading directions carefully, tips for short-answer and extended response questions include to not give personal opinion when the question asks for facts, reread the response after completing it to ensure it addresses all parts of the question and is accurate. Learners should focus on one main idea per paragraph. If there is time remaining, proofread work and correct any errors (p. 14). To accurately answer short-answer and extended response questions, students also should know the meaning of specific performance verbs (e.g., analyze, compare, describe, evaluate, explain, formulate, infer, predict, summarize, support, trace) (p. 15).
Additional test taking and preparation tips are included at Southwestern University: Preparation for a Successful Exam Day or at Study Guides and Strategies: Multiple Choice Tests.
When students feel confident that they have mastered the objectives, they should take a few practice tests, such as:
After all this preparation, learners might still have some text anxiety. Cuesta College provides relaxation techniques and how to overcome negative self-talk in How to Reduce Text Anxiety. Finally, remind students to get a good rest the night before and to eat a good breakfast on test day. These strategies have given them the confidence they need to do well.
Gayler, K., Chudowsky, N., Kober, N., & Hamilton, M. (2003, August). State high school exit exams put to the test. Washington, D.C.: Center on Education Policy. Available under section: High School Exit Exams at http://www.cep-dc.org/
Ohio Department of Education (2011). A guide to the Ohio graduation tests for students and families. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from http://education.ohio.gov/getattachment/Topics/Testing/Ohio-Graduation-Test-OGT/2011-Family-Guide.pdf.aspx
*Ohio Mathematics Academic Content Standards (2001). Retrieved from http://www.ode.state.oh.us/GD/Templates/Pages/ODE/ODEPrimary.aspx?page=2&TopicID=1696&TopicRelationID=1704 [URL is no longer active.]
*Note July 12, 2013: Per the ODE website for mathematics: "The State Board of Education has adopted the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics as part of Ohio's suite of Ohio's New Learning Standards for academic learning. The Kindergarten - Grade 12 standards will be used fully in Ohio classrooms by 2014-2015, when assessments that align to the standards are in place." The academic content standards for mathematics are now available at http://education.ohio.gov/Topics/Academic-Content-Standards/Mathematics
See strand resources:
See related pages: [ Standardized Test Preparation and Tips for Success (first page)] [ OGT Introduction ]